Pathologic changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a review

*1Babazhitsu, M., 2Adegoke, O. O., 3Abayomi, S. A., and 4Adegboro, B.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234 8032874925

Abstract:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters cells using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are expressed by the respiratory tract endothelium, epithelial cells of the stomach, duodenum, ileum, rectum, cholangiocytes, and hepatocytes. Pathological examinations of these organs are not feasible method of diagnosis but can explain pathological changes, pathogenesis of the disease, and the cause of death in COVID-19 cases. In this review, we performed a literature search for COVID-19-related pathological changes seen during post-mortem examinations in different organs of the body including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart and blood. Our findings showed that SARS-CoV-2 has damaging effects on many organs, probably due to the host immune responses to the presence of the virus. It is recommended that both antiviral and immunomodulatory agents should be considered in the management of COVID-19 patients for better prognosis, and clinical outcome. Continue reading “Pathologic changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a review”

A review of the possible prognostic values of biochemical changes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections

*1Adegboro, B., 2Babazhitsu, M., and 3Mba, N. I.

Departments of 1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and 3Chemical Pathology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
Because of high mortality and long-term hospital stay among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections, it is important to search for biochemical changes in different organs and systems that could be useful in diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. We conducted a literature search of online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar for relevant materials on biochemical changes in SARS-COV-2 infections published between December 2019 and March 2021. The review shows that SARS-COV-2 uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for attachment and entry into host cells. These ACE2 are abundantly expressed by the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and moderately expressed by the epithelial cells of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, rectum, cholangiocytes, liver hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells, and kidney tubular cells. This explains the systemic nature of SARS-COV-2 infection, and the high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Although, tests to assess biochemical changes are not specific enough for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, they may be useful for predicting outcome of COVID-19. This review highlights biochemical parameters that are significantly elevated or reduced in SARS-COV-2 infections, and which can be used as predictive factors of the severity and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Continue reading “A review of the possible prognostic values of biochemical changes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections”

Hosts and transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans: a systematic review

Aboagye, I. F.
Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 67, Legon-Accra, Ghana Correspondence to: [email protected]; +233 249874408

Abstract:
The control of Buruli ulcer (BU), a debilitating neglected tropical disease, is hampered by the inadequate understanding of the mode of transmission of its causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans). The DNA of M. ulcerans has been detected in some living organisms and non-living environmental samples of both aquatic and terrestrial sources. However, it is unclear whether the identified organisms support in vivo multiplication of the bacterium or play any role in its transmission. This paper identifies hosts of M. ulcerans, reviews progress made in unravelling the exact mode of transmission of M. ulcerans and identifies research gaps in this aspect of BU epidemiology. Using the search terms, ‘niche, Mycobacterium ulcerans’ and ‘mode of transmission, Mycobacterium ulcerans’ as well as defined inclusion criteria, information was obtained from the PubMed database and reviewed to assess their importance to the research question. Aquatic bugs of the genera Appasus and Diplonychus as well as Naucoris cimicoides and possums were identified to support in vivo multiplication of the bacterium. Bite of M. ulcerans contaminated Aedes notoscriptus, bite of aquatic bugs harboring or contaminated with M. ulcerans, and M. ulcerans contaminated skin-puncturing materials present in nature create opportunity for its transmission and infection. Appropriate protective measures may be useful to reduce the risk of exposure to M. ulcerans in BU endemic areas, and incorporation of trophic interactions of aquatic organisms known to support in vivo multiplication of M. ulcerans is needed in future research for better understanding of the spread of M. ulcerans in nature.

Keywords: Mycobacterium ulcerans, niche, transmission Continue reading “Hosts and transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans: a systematic review”

Evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing process in clinical microbiology laboratories at Niamey, Niger

1Idrissa, H., *2Abdoulaye, O., 3Yacouba, A., 3Alhousseini Maiga, D., 1Moumouni Sambo, H., 4Doutchi, M., 5Chaibou, S., 6Sani, O., 3Mamadou, S., and 7Sangare, L.

1Direction des Laboratoires de santé (DLS), Ministère de la santé publique, Niger
2Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Dan Dicko Dankoulodo, Maradi, BP 465, Niger
3Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Abdou Moumouni, Niamey, Niger
4Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Zinder, Niger
5Hôpital Général de Référence de Niamey, Niger
6Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire, Niger
7Unité de Formation et de Recherhe en Sciences de la Santé (UFR/SDS), Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +227 96354580

Abstract:
Background: Risk assessment is the means of identifying and evaluating potential errors or problems that may occur in testing process. The aim of this study was to perform risk assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) process in clinical microbiology laboratories of Niamey, Niger Republic.

Methodology: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 1 to December 31, 2019, to evaluate AST performance in seven clinical microbiology laboratories at Niamey, the capital city of Niger republic. The evaluation focused on the determination of the criticality index (CI) of each critical point (frequency of occurrence of anomalies, severity of the process anomaly, and detectability of the anomaly during the process) in the AST process and the performance of the AST through an observation sheet using two reference strains; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Continue reading “Evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing process in clinical microbiology laboratories at Niamey, Niger”

Knowledge, attitude and practice of infection prevention and control among healthcare workers: one year after an outbreak of nosocomial Lassa fever in a tertiary hospital in southeast Nigeria

*1,2Adeke, A. S., 3Onoh, R. C., 1,2Umeokonkwo, C. D., 1Azuogu, B. N., and 4Ogah, E. O.

1Department of Community Medicine, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
4Department of Pediatrics, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348035285133

Abstract:
Background: With the rise in cases of Lassa fever in recent times in West Africa, the healthcare setting continues to pose significant risk especially among healthcare workers (HCWs) for diseases like Lassa fever that are transmitted via contact with blood and other body fluids. We therefore assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of infection prevention and control (IPC) one year after an outbreak of nosocomial transmission of Lassa fever in the study hospital. Continue reading “Knowledge, attitude and practice of infection prevention and control among healthcare workers: one year after an outbreak of nosocomial Lassa fever in a tertiary hospital in southeast Nigeria”

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in enteric Gram-negative bacteria from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in a tertiary hospital, southwest Nigeria

*1,2Thonda, O. A., 2Oluduro, A. O., 3Adewole, O. O., and 4Obiajunwa, P. O.
*1Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Unit, Kings University, Odeomu, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
4Department of Paediatrics and Child Heath, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: AmpC or class C or group 1 beta lactamases are class C cephalosporinases that hydrolyse a wide variety of beta-lactam antibiotics including alpha methoxy beta-lactams (cefoxitin), narrow and broad spectrum cephalosporins. This study was conducted to characterize plasmid-mediated AmpC producing enteric Gram- negative bacteria from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC) Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Methodology: A total of 149 patients with clinical features of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) were selected by simple random sampling for the study. All Gram-negative isolates recovered from standard microbiological cultures of respiratory specimens of these patients were tested against cefoxitin, third generation cephalosporins (3GCs), and other antibiotics using the disc diffusion AST method, and also screened for production of AmpC beta-lactamases phenotypically by the CLSI method. Plasmid DNA extraction was carried out on twenty-nine cefoxitin-resistant selected isolates using the Kado and Lin method, while genotypic detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Continue reading “Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in enteric Gram-negative bacteria from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in a tertiary hospital, southwest Nigeria”

Phenotypic identification of soil bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting an archaeological monument at Augustine University, Ilara Epe, southwest Nigeria

*Ajayi, A. A., Onipede, G. O., Okafor, B. C., Adepoju, K. A., and Nwabuenu, J. C.
Department of Biological Sciences, Augustine University, Ilara Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: The Sungbo Eredo Monument is an ancient public work with a system of defensive walls and ditches located in Eredo Local Council Development Area of Epe, Lagos State, southwest Nigeria. A huge section of the monument cuts through the Augustine University campus, forming two-sided vertical walls with a deep ridge in-between. The objective of this investigative study is to determine the microbial profile of soil samples from the monument in the University campus.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from the topsoil at a depth of 7.5cm from four randomly selected points along the edge of the monument. The samples were transported to the microbiology laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences of Augustine University for analysis. Samples were cultured on Nutrient agar (NA) and incubated aerobically for 24-48 hours for bacteria isolation and on Sabouraud’s Dextrose agar (SDA) for 72 hours for fungi isolation. Bacterial colonies on NA were preliminarily identified to genus level by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical test scheme for Gram-positive (catalase, coagulase, starch hydrolysis) and Gram-negative isolates (oxidase, urease test, indole, methyl red, Voges Proskauer and sugar fermentation tests). Fungi colonies on SDA were identified using conventional macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates to selected antibiotics was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Continue reading “Phenotypic identification of soil bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting an archaeological monument at Augustine University, Ilara Epe, southwest Nigeria”

Prevalence of symptomatic urinary tract infection and bacterial spectrum of diabetic and non-diabetic patients at the two teaching hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria

*1Okwume, C. C., 1Onyemelukwe, N. F., 2Abdullahi, I. N., 1Okoyeocha, O. E., and 1Asamota, S. D.

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected] and [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by relative or absolute lack of insulin. When this condition is not properly managed, it can lead to complications that make diabetic patients vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI). The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of microbiologically confirmed UTI and the spectrum of uropathogens in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with clinical features of UTI attending the two tertiary hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Clean catch specimen of single mid-stream urine sample was collected from each of 60 (22 males, 38 females) diabetic and 60 (22 males, 38 females) non-diabetic patients enrolled using stratified random sampling method. The samples were cultured on standard microbiological culture media (MacConkey and Blood agar plates) and incubated aerobically at 37◦C for 24 hours. Plates with significant bacteria growth (>105 CFU/ml) were processed further for bacterial identification using conventional biochemical test scheme. Antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) of each isolate to 17 selected antibiotics was performed by the modified disc diffusion method. Continue reading “Prevalence of symptomatic urinary tract infection and bacterial spectrum of diabetic and non-diabetic patients at the two teaching hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria”

Prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria

*1Jamiu, M. O., 2Okesola, A. O., 3Ogunleye, V. O., and 1Fasulu, P. E.
1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
3Oyo State Emergency Operations Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234-703-285-9663

Abstract:
Background: Significant bacteriuria is commonly reported in pregnancy which greatly predisposes pregnant women to urinary tract infection (UTI), one of the commonest health challenges in pregnancy worldwide especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as determine the bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Continue reading “Prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria”

Prevalence of carbapenemase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates causing clinical infections in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

1Ettu, A. O., *2Oladapo, B. A., and 2Oduyebo, O., O.
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 08053505952

Abstract:
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been highly associated with carbapenem resistance in which carbapenemases has been suggested to be a major contributory factor. Hence the objective of this study was to phenotypically detect KPC-type carbapenemase, metallo-β-lactamase and OXA-48 carbapenemase production in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Nigeria Continue reading “Prevalence of carbapenemase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates causing clinical infections in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria”