Emerging infectious disease preparedness and response in healthcare: perspectives from COVID-19 and the role of College-Learnt Microbiology

*1Tonui, J.,

2Chepkutto, W., and

3Rotich, J.

1Department of Biomedical Sciences-Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya

2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya

3Department of Preventive and Promotive Health, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in December 2019 in Wuhan City China where it is believed to have been transmitted to humans from an unknown animal species. The public health, social and economic impact of the pandemic world over is detrimental. Health care providers at the frontline in the fight against COVID-19 are at the greatest risk of infection and so far, many have been infected and some have already died from the disease. Thus, it is imperative that healthcare providers have adequate knowledge of infectious diseases and microbial pathogens to comprehend the scale of risk for better recognition and response. Microbiological concepts of infection prevention and control, hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential in slowing down the spread of the virus. COVID-19 has proven that infectious agents can emerge from any region in the world and can spread rapidly with ominous consequences to all humanity. This narrative review discusses the role of college-learnt microbiology in health care provider preparedness for emerging infectious diseases in light of the current pandemic. Continue reading “Emerging infectious disease preparedness and response in healthcare: perspectives from COVID-19 and the role of College-Learnt Microbiology”

A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin

*1Adegboro, B., 2Lawani, O. A., 3Oriaifo, S. E., and 4Abayomi, S. A.
Departments of

1Medical Microbiology & Immunology, and

3Clinical Pharmacology, Nile University, Abuja, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Ivermectin is an avermectin which is a group of pentacyclic sixteen-membered lactone (macrocyclic lactone disaccharide) derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. It is a semi-synthetic broad-spectrum anti-helminthic, anti-viral and anti-cancer agent. It has a wide safety margin with low adverse effects when it is used orally. It has, however, so far only been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a broad spectrum anti-parasitic agent. Because ivermectin also has broad activities as an anti-viral agent, we herein review its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities, as well as the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted on the drug. It is hoped that this work will pave way for ivermectin being seriously considered as an addition to the drugs available for the management of patients with COVID-19. Continue reading “A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin”

Clinical symptoms and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

*1Usman, S. O., 2Busari, I. I., 3Fagbemi, S., 2Adeniyi, M. M., 2Irabor, P., 4Usman, I. N.,
and 5Akintayo-Usman, N. O.

1APIN Public Health Initiatives, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2Infectious Disease Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
3Ondo State Ministry of Health, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
4Department of Public Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
5Nurse Tutors Programme, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel strain of coronavirus, which is the cause of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ravaging many countries of the world. The objective of this study is to assess the symptomatology and case management outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a longitudinal study carried out on randomly selected patients with COVID-19, confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital, Akure, from March to July 2020. Clinical and outcome data obtained from the patients were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 software, and variables were compared using the Chi square (χ²) test and Odds ratio (OR).

Results: A total of 215 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomly recruited, with 103 males and 112 females (M:F ratio of 1:1.1), and mean age of 37.24 ± 16.83 years. The most common symptoms were shortness of breath (22.8%), cough (18.6%), fatigue (17.2%), runny nose (16.7%), fever (16.3%), and sneezing (14.0%). Mortality rate among the patients was 4.7% (10/215). Statistical analysis showed that fever [χ² = 8.75, OR 2.17 (95% CI: 0.29-16.63), p=0.003] and sneezing [χ²=11.35, OR 2.75 (95% CI: 0.34-18.27), p=0.001] were clinical presentations with significant impact on the final outcome of the patients.

Conclusion: This study showed that the most common symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients were shortness of breath, cough, running nose, fever and sneezing, which underscores the importance of monitoring of patients for these symptoms.

Keywords: COVID-19, symptoms, management, hospitalized, outcome, Nigeria
Received Mar 8, 2021; Revised Apr 24, 2021; Accepted Apr 26, 2021

Copyright 2021 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. S. S. Taiwo

Symptômes cliniques et résultats chez les patients hospitalisés COVID-19 dans l’État d’Ondo, dans le sud-ouest du Nigéria

*1Usman, S. O., 2Busari, I. I., 3Fagbemi, S., 2Adeniyi, M. M., 2Irabor, P., 4Usman, I. N., et 5Akintayo-Usman, N. O.

1Initiatives de santé publique 1APIN, Akure, État d’Ondo, Nigéria

2Hôpital des maladies infectieuses, Akure, État d’Ondo, Nigéria

3Ministère de la Santé de l’État de Ando, Akure, État d’Ondo, Nigéria

4Département de la santé publique, Université de technologie Ladoke Akintola, Ogbomoso, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

5Programme d’infirmières tuteurs, Hôpital universitaire, Ibadan, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

*Correspondance à: [email protected]

Abstrait:

Contexte: Le coronavirus-2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS-CoV-2) est une nouvelle souche de coronavirus, qui est à l’origine de la pandémie actuelle de coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), ravageant de nombreux pays du monde. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer les résultats de la symptomatologie et de la prise en charge des cas de patients hospitalisés COVID-19 dans l’État d’Ondo, dans le sud-ouest du Nigéria.

Méthodologie: Il s’agissait d’une étude longitudinale réalisée sur des patients sélectionnés au hasard atteints de COVID-19, confirmée par réaction en chaîne par transcriptase-polymérase inverse en temps réel (rRT-PCR), admis à l’hôpital des maladies infectieuses d’Akure de mars à juillet 2020. Les données cliniques et les résultats obtenus des patients ont été analysés à l’aide du logiciel Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0, et les variables ont été comparées à l’aide du test du Chi carré (χ²) et du rapport de cotes (OR). Continue reading “Clinical symptoms and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria”

Outbreak of Measles in vaccinated population in Southeastern Nigeria

*1Shenge, J. A., 2Odaibo, G. N., and 2Olaleye, D. O.

1Department of Biological Sciences, Dominican University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Outbreaks of respiratory disease, febrile illness and rash occurred in two adjoining rural communities of Imo State, Southeastern, Nigeria, at different times between 2006 and 2020. Laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the aetiological agent of the outbreak.

Methodology: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 6 individuals showing symptoms of disease, within 3-4 days of appearance of rash. Venous blood samples were also collected from a total of 41 symptomatic persons, their contacts and individuals with resolved infections. Swabs were inoculated into Vero, HEp-2c, B95a and MDCK cell lines. Sera were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M to rubella and measles viruses, while immunofluorescence assay was used to detect Lassa fever virus immunoglobulins. Descriptive data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Four of the 6 (66.7%) swab samples showed viral activity or cytopathic effect characterized by clumping of cells in Vero cells while 2 (33.3%) in Hep-2c characterized by rounding up of cells. Thirty-nine (95.1%) sera were positive for measles IgG while 13 (31.7%) were positive for IgM. Thirty-six (87.8%) sera were positive for rubella IgG but none was positive for IgM. None of the sera was positive for Lassa fever virus IgG and IgM. Continue reading “Outbreak of Measles in vaccinated population in Southeastern Nigeria”

Persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection among cohort of women in Awka, Nigeria

*1Ezebialu, C. U., 2Ezebialu, I. U., and 2Ezenyeaku, C. C.

1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Awka, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 08066528090

Abstract:

Background: Many women are known to contract human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in their lifetime but only a few develop cervical cancer. One of the major factors that contribute to development of cervical cancer is HPV persistence. Several other factors including viral load have been implicated in cervical cancer development. This work therefore intends to investigate the persistence of cervical HPV infection among cohort of women in Awka, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cohort of 58 women with normal Papanicolaou (Pap) test but positive HPV DNA selected from a population of 410 women at baseline were followed up over a period of 6 months from April to October 2015. Cervical specimens collected were subjected to HPV DNA test and viral quantification using TaqMan Real Time PCR and cervical cytology. Risk factors were obtained using semi structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Variables were analysed using descriptive statistics and T-test on IBM SPSS statistics version 21.0 and EPI INFOTM 7.0

Results: At the 6-month follow up, cervical HPV infection persisted in 29 women, representing 50% of the women followed up. Among the 29 women, 7 (24.1%) developed abnormal Pap smear (Low grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion). Factors significantly associated with persistence at bivariate analysis of HPV include previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) (p=0.005), HIV positivity (p=0.04), HIV positivity but no anti-retroviral drugs (p=0.014), HPV 16 infection (p<0.0001) and age less than 40 years (p<0.0001). At multinomial logistic regression, only age above 17 years at first sexual intercourse (p=0.003, CI=0.012-0.392) and multiple lifetime sexual partners (p=0.021, CI=0.20-0.726) were statistically significant.

Conclusion: High risk HPV infection, in addition to other factors peculiar to an individual may influence HPV persistence

Key words: cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, persistence, cytology, risk factors, infection

Received Sept 28, 2020; Revised Jan 14, 2021; Accepted Mar 27, 2021
Copyright 2021 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. S. S. Taiwo

Persistance de l’infection cervicale par le papillomavirus humain parmi une cohorte de femmes à Awka, Nigéria

*1Ezebialu, C.U., 2Ezebialu, I.U., et 2Ezenyeaku, C. C.

1Département de microbiologie appliquée et brassage, Université Nnamdi Azikiwe, Awka, Nigéria

2Département d’obstétrique et de gynécologie, Collège de médecine, Université Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Awka, Nigéria

*Correspondance à: [email protected]; 08066528090

Abstrait:

Contexte: De nombreuses femmes sont connues pour contracter une infection au virus du papillome humain (VPH) au cours de leur vie, mais seules quelques-unes développent un cancer du col de l’utérus. L’un des principaux facteurs qui contribuent au développement du cancer du col de l’utérus est la persistance du VPH. Plusieurs autres facteurs, y compris la charge virale, ont été impliqués dans le développement du cancer du col de l’utérus. Ce travail vise donc à étudier la persistance de l’infection cervicale au VPH parmi la cohorte de femmes à Awka, au Nigeria.

Méthodologie: Une cohorte de 58 femmes avec un test de Papanicolaou (Pap) normal mais un ADN HPV positif sélectionné parmi une population de 410 femmes au départ ont été suivis sur une période de 6 mois d’avril à octobre 2015. Les échantillons cervicaux collectés ont été soumis à l’ADN HPV. test et quantification virale à l’aide de la PCR en temps réel TaqMan et de la cytologie cervicale. Les facteurs de risque ont été obtenus à l’aide de questionnaires semi-structurés administrés par les intervieweurs. Les variables ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives et d’un test T sur IBM SPSS statistics version 21.0 et EPI INFOTM 7.0

Résultats: Au suivi de 6 mois, l’infection cervicale au VPH persistait chez 29 femmes, soit 50% des femmes suivies. Parmi les 29 femmes, 7 (24,1%) ont développé un test Pap anormal (lésion squameuse intraépithéliale de bas grade). Les facteurs significativement associés à la persistance lors de l’analyse bivariée du VPH comprennent les antécédents d’infection sexuellement transmissible (IST) (p=0,005), la positivité au VIH (p=0,04), la positivité au VIH mais pas d’antirétroviraux (p=0,014), l’infection au VPH 16 (p<0,0001) et moins de 40 ans (p<0,0001). Lors de la régression logistique multinomiale, seuls les âges supérieurs à 17 ans lors du premier rapport sexuel (p=0,003, IC=0,012-0,392) et les multiples partenaires sexuels à vie (p=0,021, IC=0,20-0,726) étaient statistiquement significatifs.

Conclusion: Une infection au VPH à haut risque, en plus d’autres facteurs propres à un individu, peut influencer la persistance du VPH

Mots clés: cancer du col de l’utérus, papillomavirus humain, persistance, cytologie, facteurs de risque, infection

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Persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection among cohort of women in Awka, Nigeria

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women on antenatal visits: rapid tests or ELISA?

*1,2Fowotade, A., 2Adetunji, S. O., 2Amadi, E., 2Ishola, I. O., and 3Omoruyi, E. C.

1Clinical Virology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Institute of Child and Maternal Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge with over 360 million people infected worldwide, and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) is the most important marker for HBV screening, and HBSAg rapid screening test methods are the most widely used compared with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nucleic acid testing methods. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the comparative efficacy of rapid test kits and ELISA for HBV screening among pregnant women on antenatal visits and to screen for other HBV serological markers among HBsAg positive patients.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of 172 pregnant women who were recruited consecutively on their first antenatal visit at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between November 2018 and February 2019. All participants were screened for HBsAg using both rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) and ELISA techniques. HBsAg negative samples were further screened for anti-HBeAg/Ab, anti-HBcAg and anti-HBs by ELISA. Socio-demographic data of the participants were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire, and data were analyzed using EPI INFO 7.2 statistical software. Continue reading “Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women on antenatal visits: rapid tests or ELISA?”

Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

*1Ky/Ba, A., 2Sanou, M., 3Ouédraogo, A. S., 2Sourabié, I. B., 4Ky, A. Y., 5Sanou, I., 2Ouédraogo/Traoré, R., and 6Sangaré, L.

1Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bogodogo, 14 BP 371, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

2Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles De Gaule, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

3Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Souro Sanou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

4Intrahealth International, Burkina Faso

5Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Blaise Compaoré, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

6Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: In Burkina Faso, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is not routinely used in the biological qualification of blood donations and this constitutes a risk factor for the transmission of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during blood transfusion. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of occult B infection (OBI) among blood donors for the purposes of improved blood safety in Burkina Faso.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 300 HBsAg negative blood donors was conducted in the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April to October 2020. Anti-HBc antibody was determined using the BOSON® brand rapid tests. HBV DNA was detected in 75 selected donors by real-time PCR (rt PCR) using the 7500 Fast Real Time PCR assay technique. Continue reading “Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso”

Molecular detection and characterization of bacteria from CSF samples of patients with suspected cerebrospinal meningitis in parts of northern Nigeria using metagenomic DNA extracts

*1,2Peletiri, I. C., 1Ikeh, E. I., 1Ayanbimpe, G. M., and 3Nna, E.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

2Medical Microbiology & Parasitology Laboratories, National Hospital, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria

3Safety Molecular Pathology Laboratory, The Molecular Pathology Institute, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: The most commonly used approaches for detection and characterization of bacterial pathogens of meningitis in developing countries include culture, Gram stain, and latex agglutination. The positivity rate of culture is relatively low due to suboptimal storage and transportation conditions, culture practice, and/or antibiotic treatment administered before specimens are collected. Specimens that yield no growth in culture can still be analyzed using molecular methods, and metagenomic DNA (mDNA) extracted directly from clinical samples (CSF) can be used. We aimed to detect and characterize three major bacterial causes of cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM); Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae using mDNA extracted directly from CSF samples.

Methodology: Metagenomic DNA templates were prepared directly from CSF specimens collected from 210 patients with suspected CSM. A multiplex Real Time PCR (mRT-PCR) using the ABI StepOne Plus Machine and Taqman Probe chemistry was used in the molecular detection, while serogroup/serotype-specific singleplex RT-PCR was used to characterize all positives samples. Continue reading “Molecular detection and characterization of bacteria from CSF samples of patients with suspected cerebrospinal meningitis in parts of northern Nigeria using metagenomic DNA extracts”

A retrospective study of antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients in two Lebanese hospitals for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019)

1Sakr, S., 2Abboud, M., 3Tawbeh, K., 1Hamam, B., and *1Sheet, I.

1Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese International University, Lebanon

2Haroun Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

3Department of Mathematics and Physics, School of Arts and Sciences,
Lebanese International University, Lebanon
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Misuse of antibiotics is the leading factor promoting emergence of bacterial resistance, a situation that has become a serious public health challenge. Among the leading bacteria that have developed resistance to antibiotics are Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which have caused infections in patients, resulting in considerable mortality. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess antibiotic resistance rates of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens in two Lebanese hospitals between the years 2018 and 2019.

Methodology: Bacteria isolated from routine clinical specimens collected from hospitalized patients in two hospitals, Haroun and Bekaa, in Lebanon for 2018 and 2019, were analyzed. Bacteria isolation and identification were carried out at the laboratory of each hospital using conventional microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testings (AST) of each bacterial isolate to antibiotics were performed by the disc diffusion test and interpreted using EUCAST, CLSI or WHO/AST guidelines. Comparisons of the mean resistance rates of each isolate to individual antibiotics by year of isolation were done using the Z-test and p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “A retrospective study of antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients in two Lebanese hospitals for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019)”

Bioinformatic analysis of multi-drug resistant class 1 integron-coded protein of Citrobacter freundii

Popoola, O. D., and *Thomas, B. T.

Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348064011412; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0675-5749

Abstract:

Background: The understanding of the secondary structure of the class 1 integron coded protein is necessary to decipher potential drug target and also to infer evolutionary ancestry at the proteomic level. This study was therefore aimed at determining the secondary structure of class 1 integron-coded protein and also to provide information on their evolutionary ancestry.

Methodology: Five different sequences of Citrobacter freundii with the following accession numbers; KP902625.1, KP902624.1, KP902623.1, KP901093.1 and KP902609.1 were obtained using nucleotide BLAST (http://blast. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) and subjected to evolutionary analysis, pairwise distance calculation, secondary structure and neutrality test using MEGA explorer, Kimura 2 parameter, SOPMA tool and Tajima’s test respectively. Continue reading “Bioinformatic analysis of multi-drug resistant class 1 integron-coded protein of Citrobacter freundii”