The testicular histology of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S.mansoni) cercaria and treated with Niridazole was examined. The results reveal that infection of mice with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae resulted in distortion of the testicular cyto-architecture including disruption of spermatogenesis as shown by the absence of spermatozoa in the lumen of the sominiferous tubule and distruction of the inter-tubular connective tissue of the infected mice. These changes were reversed to normalcy following two-course treatment of the infected mice with Niridazole after five weeks.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 2-5)

Investigation of the efficacy of two rapid assessment techniques (Optimal 1 and SD-Bioline) for the diagnosis of malaria in rural areas of Nigeria

P.U. Agomo, V.N. Asianya, S.K. Akindele, C.O. Agomo, M.O. Akinyele, T.A. Adewole, U.T. Igbasi, R. C Anyanwu, K.N Egbuna



We had previously studied the efficacy of three new techniques-Para Sight F, (PSF), Immunochromatographic Test (ICT) and Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) – as possible replacements for the time-consuming microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria. Two more rapid assessment techniques (the Optimal 1 and SD-BIOLINE) were recently introduced into Nigeria and claimed to exhibit high sensitivity and specificity. Optimal 1 was particularly claimed to distinguish between P falciparum, P. malariae, P ovale and P. vivax. We have in this work evaluated the efficacy of both the Optimal 1 and SD-Bioline in 240 patients from Ibafo and Magboro Communities in Obafemi-Owode LGA of Ogun State, Nigeria. Results showed that with regard to the detection of P. falciparum, Optimal 1 gave a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 63.95%, 92.20%, 82.1% and 82.1% respectively, while the SD-Bioline gave 54.84%, 42.9%, 68.0% and 68.0% respectively. In retrospect, the sensitivities shown by 3 other techniques (ICT, PSF and QBC) investigated by us were 88.63, 89.95 and 87.6% respectively. Their specificities on the other hand were 94.60, 91.17, 94.70% respectively. The main advantage of the rapid Optimal 1 technique is that it was able to detect P. malariae which microscopy also detected in three patients. The SD-BIOLINE gave the worst comparative result and could not be recommended for use in Nigeria. This work in conclusion has shown that Optimal 1 could be useful in the rapid diagnosis of the various species of Plasmodium in Nigeria provided the patients could afford the test.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 6-13)

Evaluation of the OptiMAL Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

IOA Ujah, EI Ikeh, RH Glew, DJ Vanderjagt



This study evaluated the ability of a newly developed rapid test for laboratory diagnosis of malaria. OptiMAL is a rapid test that utilizes a dipstick coated with monoclonal antibodies against the intracellular parasite dehydrogenase (PLDH). The differentiation of Plasmodium species is based on antigenic differences between the PLDH forms. Blood samples from 62 of clinically diagnosed patients were examined using the microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood films and the OptiMAL test. The blood films indicated that 27% of the patients were positive for P.falciparum (including one case of mixed infection with P. malariae), while the OptiMAL test recorded 34% for P. falciparum. The OptiMAL test failed to diagnose malaria at concentrations less than 100 per microliter of blood, while those missed by microscopy may be due to sequestration of the parasite coupled with low parasite density. The OptiMAL test was modified by using fingerprick instead of venepuncture and this simplifies the test both in terms of cost and trained personnel. There was no significant difference between the two methods (x2 = 1.513;P>0.05), but the OptiMAL test has the advantages of being faster, requires almost no specialized laboratory experience and extremely sensitive and specific even in field situations. We conclude that the OptiMAL test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 14-17)

Malaria morbidity amongst hospital workers in Ilorin

A.O. Awoyemi



A study of malaria as a cause of morbidity among the staff of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria was carried out from August to October 2001. Patients attending a community based Health Centre was used as control. Malaria accounted for 43.0% of illnesses among the workers and 36.7% in the general public. Malaria was responsible for nearly two-thirds of sickness absence and for 48.6% of days lost due to illnesses. Also the disease was responsible for 50 percent or more of sickness absence among all categories of workers when analyzed by occupations. These findings show that malaria could disrupt the health care delivery of a country since it could affect even health workers. By extension too, it could result in the disruption of the economic activities of the country and result in low productivity if not effectively controlled. It I therefore recommended that all efforts at effective controlling malaria should be put in place in Nigeria.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 18-23)

Parasitic dermatoses as seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City In Nigeria



The epidemiology and associated risk factors for parasitic infections causing dermatologic lesions were studied retrospectively over a five year period (1993-1998) in Benin City Nigeria. The study population comprised one hundred and fifty six patients (84 males and 72 females) out of a total of 1665 patients who attended the dermatology clinic at the (UBTH) during the period of study. Dermatological manifestations of diagnosed parasitic infections were recorded and related to the occurrence of parasite species in microscopically studied specimens collected form patients. 9.4% of patients seen presented with various skin diseases of parasitic origin. The most prevalent parasitic disease seen was scabies 115 (73.7%); others were onchodermatitis 16(10.3%), myasis 11(7.1%), wuchereriasis (elephantiasis) 9(5.8%), cutaneous larva migrans 3(1.9) and pediculosis pubis 2(1.3%). Infection was prevalent in all age groups. Overall prevalence revealed that patients aged 15 years and below had the highest infection rate of 60 (38.5%) while the lowest infection occurred among those who were aged 60 years and above. Dermatologic parasitoses presented as chronic persistent infections, which were sometimes severe especially in children. Infection rate was significantly higher among males (53.8%) than females (46.2%) (P<0.05), symptoms included generalized skin rashes, for most infections, leopard skin in onchodermatitis and marked discomfort and disfigurement in elephantiasis. The major risks associated with these parasitic infections include socioeconomic status, age and human behavioral factors.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 24-30)

Profile of potentially pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents in solid wastes in Ibadan municipality

O.A Adeyeba, J.A. Akinbo



In order determine the profile of potentially pathogenic enteric parasites and bacterial agents inmunicipal refuse dumps in Ibadan, 5 major market places in the city were randomly selected by balloting method. Refuse sludge were examined parasitologically and bacteriological using the method described. The data analysis was done and test of significance carried out by using the chi square test where applicable.
Cases of multiple parasites and bacterial agents were commonly encountered in the sludge refuse samples. The commonly found parasitic agents were of both human and veterinary importance. These included Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3 epg), Entamoeba histolytica (8,07 cyst per gram); Hookworm/strongyle (6.27 epg) and Ascaris suum (1.07 epg). Others are Ascaris vitolorum (1.09 epg) Stongyloides papillosu (0.52 larvae/g) Schistosoma suis (0.31 epg) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum whilst the most commonly found bacterial agents were Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus specie, streptococci and other gram-positive organisms. Climatic conditions affected the distribution of both parasites and bacterial agents in the sludge (P<0.001). more intestinal parasites (53.4%) and bacterial agents (27.2%) were encountered at mean air temperature 26.1 0.60C, mean relative humidity of 72 3.5%. The degree of contamination by market location varies significantly (P<0.001) A high degree of contamination of solid waste dumpsites with bacterial and bacterial and parasitic agents was observed in the present study. As a result of the public importance of the organisms isolated it is opined that well planned waste management and health education programs will go a long way to reduce the potential epidemic risks posed by such sites in Ibadan, Nigeria. it is believed that economic advantage could be taken of the mountainous solid waste dump by establishing fertilizer-processing plant to produce fertilizer for farmers and provide job opportunity for youths in the area.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 31-43)

Cutaneous and intestinal myiases in Lagelu L.G.A of Oyo State

M.A. Oluwatosin, I.F Fadahunsi



There cases of cutaneous myiasis by Cordylobia anthropophaga and a case of intestinal pseudo-myiasis involving Eristalis specie are reported in patients from Oyedeji, Apatere and Dagbolu all in Lagelu Local Government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. All cases involved children except the one of multiple cutaneous type which was observed in an adolescent female patient.

Patients’ conditions gradually improved after recovery of the larvae from them. This report constitutes the first recorded autaneous and intestinal myiases in this rural area, albeit many such cases in the past have gone unrecorded.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 44-47)

Antibiotic sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Enugu, Nigeria

U.C. Ozumba



The pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of 229 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated between June 1998 and May 2000 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu was studied. The isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens by culturing on standard media viz: blood agar, macConkey agar and Cled agar and identified by routine procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by the disc diffusion technique employing multidisc (habdisc) and using sensitivity test agar incubated at 370C for 24 hours. The results were read and interpreted according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Majority of the isolates tested were susceptible to Ceftazidime (88.5%), Colistin (83.75%), Ciprofloxacine (62.1%) and Ofloxacin (62.5%). Non-urinary isolates were more sensitive than the urinary isolates to of floxacine, Gentamycin, Streptomycin, Ceftriaxine and Cephtazidime. Similar incidence of resistance was observed between the two groups to other antibiotics. Efforts must be made to improve infection control practises, improve antimicroial utilization practices and establish an antibiotic policy for the country.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 48-51)

Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at Jos University Teaching Hospital

E.I. Ikeh



A prospective surveillance of Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was carried out at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, over a one year period. This study highlights the continuos importance of MRSA in causing both hospital and to a less extent community acquired infections. Out of the 180 consecutive isolates of S. aureus tested, 758 (43%) were found to be methicillin resistant, 81% (63 isolates) of the MRSA were from hospital in-patients while 19% (15 isolates) were from out-patients. The highest rate of methicillin resistance (81%) was found in surgical wound infections while the special care baby unity (SCBU) service recorded 4%. 85% of the MRSA were sensitive to Ofloxacilin while 46% were sensitive to peflacine. Most MRSA isolates were multiply resistant to Augumentin, centriaxone and ceftazidime, thus confirming the nosocomial nature of the isolates. Vancomycin and teicoplanin are not locally available and so ofloxacillin is the drug of choice. This study has demonstrated a high prevalence of MRSA in our hospital, which definitely plays a significant role in hospital acquired inflections. In conclusion, the relatively high prevalence of MRSA in this study has shown that there is a “limited” level of infection control activity in our hospital.

(Af. J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology: 2003 4(1): 52-55)