Leucocyte Phagocytosis In Children With Urinary Schistosomiasis And Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia

OG Arinola



In the participants considered for this study, leucocyte migration, neutrophil candidacidal activity and ability to generate reactive oxygen were determined as percentage migration index (%M. I), candidacidal phagocytic index (%C.I) and bacterial stimulated nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction index (%NBT) respectively. Also, malaria density was counted from thick blood film of glass slide stained with Giemsa stain. The participants were 54 school children having urinary schistosomiasis without malaria parasites (USS-M), 18 children with both urinary schistosomiasis and malaria parasites (USS+M), 46 children with malaria parasites without urinary schistosomiasis (M-USS) and 29 controls. The mean % M.I was least while %NBT index was highest in USS+M subjects but M-USS subjects had least %C.I. Malaria density was higher in M-USS subjects than USS+M subjects. The results of this study showed that low prevalence and reduced severity of malaria parasites in children with urinary schistosomiasis may be due to adequate production of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LMIF) and reactive oxygen species.
Key words: Leucocyte phagocytosis, malaria, schistosomiasis, Nigeria

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 81-86

The Pattern Of Packed Cell Volume, Plasma Electrolytes And Glucose Levels In Patients Infected With Plasmodium falciparum

MF Olaniyan



Fifty-two patients (27 males, 25 females aged 25 &plusmn: 18.4 years) with Plasmodium falciparum infection and 53 healthy control subjects (27 males, 26 females aged 28.3 ± 19.2 years) were recruited for the study. Plasma electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl), glucose and HCO3 were respectively analyzed colorimetrically and biochemically. There was an observed lower significant mean value of packed cell volume, Na+, HCO3and glucose in Plasmodium falciparum infected subjects than the values obtained from the normal control subjects with p < 0.05. Higher significant mean value of Cl and K+ was observed in the test than the control subjects (p < 0.05). Significantly lower packed cell volume, Na+, Cl, glucose and higher significant K+ levels were observed in the test subjects aged 1-10 years than test subjects aged 11-72 years with p < 0.05. This study further affirms the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pattern of packed cell volume, plasma electrolytes and glucose concentrations.
Key words: Electrolytes, Plasmodium falciparum, Glucose, Packed Cell Volume

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 87-90

Prevalence Of Malaria Parasitaemia In Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic At Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

EI Ikeh, SN Akudo, VE Uguru



The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were determined on the thick films. Eighteen (9%) of the women were positive for malaria parasites and only Plasmodium falciparum was encountered in the study. Pregnant women in the 15-20 year age group recorded the highest prevalence of 16%, closely followed by the age group 21-25 years with 15.2%. The 26-30, 31-35, 36-40 and 41-50 year age groups recorded 6.7%, 4.5%, 4.1% and 0% prevalence rates respectively. Women in their first trimester recorded 13.3% as against 10.2% and 3.8% for the second and third trimester respectively. The primigravidae had a prevalence of 12.9% as against 7.2% for multigravidae. Most of the women with malaria parasitaemia (89%) had parasite densities of less than 1000/µL of blood. The low prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in the ANC women is attributed to the regular prophylactic malaria therapy and the impacts of the health talks normally given to pregnant women during routine antenatal visits
Key words: Malaria, pregnancy, prevalence, prophylaxisAfr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 91-94

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Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune Complexes In Vitamin Deficient Mice Infected With Plasmodium berghei

OG Arinola, DI Onubogu, LS Salimonu



Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured spectrophotometrically using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. The mean spleen weight, liver weight and CICs of vitamin deficient mice or vitamin deficient P. berghei infected mice were reduced compared with those of well-fed mice. However, the reduction in spleen weight was significant in vitamin deficient mice from day 15-post vitamin deficiency compared with well-fed mice. Also, the reduction in liver weight was significant in vitamin deficient mice at day 5- and day 10-post vitamin deficiency compared with well-fed mice while the reduction in liver weight was significant in vitamin deficient P. berghei infected mice at day 5-, day 10-, day 15- and day 20- post P. berghei infection compared with well-fed mice. The reductions in the levels of CICs were significant in both vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient P. bergheiinfected mice compared with well-fed mice from day 5-post P. berghei infection or day 5-post vitamin deficiency. The observed decreased CICs in vitamin deficient mice accompanied by reduction in liver and spleen weights showed that vitamin is essential in mounting effective immune response against malaria.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 95-99

Use Of Injectable Anti-Malarials Among Patients In Selected Health Facilities In Ilorin, Nigeria

TM Akande, SO Kolawole, GF Medubi



Irrational use of injectable antimalarial is commonplace in developing countries. This descriptive survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of injectable antimalarials use and factors related to this practice in selected health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria. A total of 356 outpatients were interviewed in the selected health facilities and available clinical records checked. Awareness of both oral and injectable antimalarials is fairly high among the respondents. Injectable antimalarial was the most preferred form by the patients. Request for injectable antimalarial was significantly more among educated patients and those attending private clinics and health centers. Among respondents 90.3% had ever used injectable antimalarial. Use of injectable antimalarial irrespective of clinical indications is common practice. Rational practices in the prescription of antimalarial and promotion of oral therapy need to be widely encouraged among health workers in developing countries. This will reduce the hazards associated with unnecessary injections and also reduce cost.
Key words: Injectable antimalarial, use, health facilities.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 101-105

Review Article: Epidemiology of Malaria in Africa

TM Akande, IO Musa



Malaria is a life threatening parasitic disease transmitted by female anopheles mosquitoes. There are four types of human parasites; Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, P ovale and P. falciparum. P. falciparum and P. vivax are the most common and P. falciparum, the most deadly type of infection, is most common in sub-Saharan Africa. A large number of environmental factors affect the distribution, seasonality and transmission intensity of malaria. Rainfall provides breeding sites for mosquitoes and increases the humidity, which enhances their survival. While malaria is largely endemic in Africa, varying proportion of countries in the continent are at risk of endemic malaria. Today, approximately 40% of the world population, mostly those living in the world’s poorest countries, is at risk of malaria. This is mostly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. There are at least 300 million acute cases of malaria each year globally resulting in more than a million deaths, around 90% of these occur in Africa, mostly young children. In areas of stable malaria transmission, very young children and pregnant women are the population at highest risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. The populations most at risk of epidemics are those living in highlands, arid and desert-fringe zones and those living in areas where successful control measures have not been consolidated or maintained.
Key words: Epidemiology, Malaria, Africa

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 107 – 111

Review Article: Recent Advances in Childhood Antimalaria Chemotherapy

SK Ernest, OA Mokuolu



As malaria continues to kill many people in our world and spreading into areas that were never known to have it before, it becomes necessary to make occasional reviews of what therapeutic measures are effective in areas of malaria endemicity. There is a global concern as to reducing malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide. Malaria eradication had been viewed as impossible with the mechanisms used against it and the world has settled for just a control. One of the critical areas of this control is effective case management. As it was the case with tuberculosis, leprosy and bacterial infections, there is a paradigm shift from the monotherapy that have been used for nearly three centuries (Quinine) and nearly 60 years after other drugs were discovered (Chloroquine, since early 1940s and subsequently others) with no remarkable drop in the global morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) now advocates combination therapy, which are mainly Artemisinin–based. We in this article made an extensive review of the combination chemotherapeutic possibilities and advocacy for it to achieve increase survival, reduced disease burden through effective parasitaemic clearance with reduced chance of early recrudescence. A necessary overview has been made of the life cycle and clinical presentation of malaria which has not changed significantly over the years. Also, the combination chemotherapy including Artemisinin-based, Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine–based and the non-Artemisinin non-Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine-based chemotherapy have all been reviewed and concluded that their use will lead to effective case management and reduced mortality. We therefore advocate for a therapeutic paradigm shift to these combination therapy.
Key words: Combination chemotherapy, antimalaria, childhood, review

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 129-137

Review Article: Vaccine for Malaria – How Far?

GO Oyeyinka



This is a review of the progress made so far in the effort to produce a malaria vaccine. The problems that have made it impossible to get an effective vaccine for malaria are discussed. Also examined are the current efforts to produce the vaccine and the prospects for an effective vaccine in the future.
Key words: Vaccine, malaria, review.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 139-143

Review Article: Prospect and Progress of Malaria Vaccine Development

OA Adeyeba, AF Fagbenro-Beyioku, O Ojurongbe



Malaria kills one child every 30 seconds in Africa. The development of a safe vaccine remains an urgent unmet need which could greatly control and even lead to the eradication of the disease. The success recorded in the recent vaccine trials have given some ray of hope that a safe and effective vaccine against malaria will soon be produced. In this article, we bring together important published information on the status of malaria vaccine development and reviewed some field trials and the obstacles as well as prospect for effective malaria vaccination.
Key words: Malaria vaccine, prospect, review

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 145-152

Review Article: ‘Miasma’ Theory and the Possibility of Malaria Eradication

Ademola O Awoyemi



Malaria as a disease entity caused by plasmodium species only became recognized towards the end of the 19th Century. Prior to that time, Mal’aria or ‘bad air’ was believed to be the cause of fevers or paludal. This article traces the history of ‘Miasma’ theory which had been accepted for Centuries before the ‘Germ’ theory became established. Comparing the ‘Miasma’ theory with current understanding of Africans about disease causation, it was concluded that there are great similarities. It is therefore recommended that concurrent application of both the ‘Germ’ theory and the ‘Miasma’ theory could lead to a more effective control or even global eradication of malaria.
Key words: Miamsa, malaria, eradication

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2005; 6(2): 153-158