Evaluation of measles vaccine cold chain in Lagos State, Nigeria

A O Oyefolu, A C Nwaeke, R A Audu, K O Akinyemi, O B Salu, C P Muller, S A Omilabu



The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and maintained. This was also reflected in the potency of the vaccines. However, many vaccines at L1 were within weeks from expiration. Considerable problems with refrigeration and delayed forwarding became apparent at level L3 causing loss in potency both at L3 and L4: although, all L4 stores check-listed met all the EPI/NPI accreditation criteria, ¾ of the vaccines were sub-potent and this situation did not improve over the three year study period (1996-98). Time to expiration did not seem to be the main cause of loss of potency but rather poor and delayed handling. It is recommended that vaccines are moved more rapidly through the system and used well before expiration. Because of frequent power failures despite standby generators, we further recommend to include in the WHO criteria, book-keeping of periods of power failures, running time of generators and a complete recording of fuel consumption. Attitudes among vaccinating staff and handling of vaccines should also be improved by continued training.

Keywords: Measles vaccine; cold stores; potency

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 1-7

Biochemical basis of heavy metal induced stress tolerance in the N2 fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum

P Sultan, S M Shah, P Williams, A Jan, N Ahmad



The effect of heavy metals (Cd and Cu) on the nitrogen fixing cyanbacterium, Anabaena doliolum was observed in the present study. To explore the survival strategy of the test cyanobacterium, Chl/CAR content, protein content, antioxidative defense system ( SOD, APX and GR) as well as biochemical fractionation (carbohydrates, lipids, protein, DNA and RNA) were studied. Increasing concentrations of metals inhibited the growth and survival significantly; chlorophyll and carotenoid content were found inhibited with increase in concentration of metals. Among the antioxidative enzymes, SOD and APX were increased with the increase in concentration of both the metals, whereas Catalase and Glutathione reductase were decreased at higher dose of Cd and Cu. APX played a major role for scavenging H2O2 rather than CAT. Results revealed decrease in all parameters with the duration of time. The role of metal induced PC in offering tolerance to UV-B was confirmed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system of the cyanobacterium treated with Cd and UV-B as well as in the Cd pretreated cells of A.dolium exposed to UV-B. Lipid peroxidation (measured in terms of MDA content) as well as SOD and APX were found to be less induced, thus showing less oxidative damage incase of interactive treatment when applied separately. However, CAT and GR which showed sensitivity at higher dose of both the stresses were found to be induced. Thus Cd appears to antagonize the effect of UV-B in test cyanobacterium. To know the actual reason for the antagonism, PC concentration was measured in the cells with and without BSO (a potent inhibitor of phytochelatin synthase) pretreatment. The results emphasized that the extent of antagonism was reverted in the BSO pretreated cells than the normal BSO non- treated cells. Nevertheless, the PC content was found to be more in case of Cd + UV-B than the individually treated cells, but the PC was more or less completely inhibited after BSO pretreatment in all the cases. The above finding was also visualized on the SDS-PAGE. Therefore this study showed that Cd induced PC has role in UV-B tolerance.
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 8-22

The role of genital chlamydial infection in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

O K Obunge, C T John



The polymicrobial nature of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) underscores the need for a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis and etiology of PID especially among core groups most at risk. This study was designed to determine the role of specific microbial infections in leading to PID among women. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection and other reproductive tract infections were determined in 100 women presenting at a health facility at Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The result showed that 11.1 per cent of women with acute PID were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis as compared to 4.3 per cent in the control group (odds ratio 2.75: 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-11.7). Neiserria gonorrhoeae was not detected in either of the two groups. Trichomoniasis (10% in PID cases and no case in control group) and bacterial vaginosis (17.5% and 4.3% in PID and control group respectively: Odds ratio 4.7, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1) were also significantly associated with the clinical picture suggestive of acute PID. It is recommended that where resources are limited, patients presenting with acute PID be treated empirically for Chlamydia trachomatis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and gonorrhoea.

Keywords: : Pelvic inflammatory disease, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neiserria gonorrhoeae, Bacteria vaginosis, Trichomoniasis

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 23-27