Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seropositivity In African Patients Presenting To The Eye Clinic – A Preliminary To Prevention Of Occupational Exposure

CO Adeoti, AO Ashaye, MA Isawumi



A seroprevalence study of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in new patients attending the eye clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria showed that twenty-nine patients 2.7%) were positive to HIV1. No patient was
positive to HIV 2. There were 21 males (72.4%) and 8 females (27.6%). The clinical diagnosis in the HIV positive patients was as shown in Table 1. Cataract was found in nine cases (31.03%), herpes zoster 4 (13.79%), glaucoma, optic atrophy (nonglaucomatous)
and corneal abscess were responsible for 3 (10.35%) of cases each; presbyopia, bacterial conjunctivtis 2 (6.89%) while maculopathy, orbital cellulitis and adherent leucoma were found in 1 (3.45%) patient each. These findings suggest that, patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be HIV seropositive and as such it may be
necessary to observe all rules relating to HIV transmission so as to prevent occupational exposure and cross infection in our clinics and operating theatres. Necessary measures to reduce occupational HIV infection and post exposure treatment if exposure occurs
are discussed.

Keywords: Nigeria, ophthalmological disorders, occupational exposure, cross infection.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 110-114

The Sensitivity Of Diazo Test In The Diagnosis Of Enteric Fevers

KB Tanyigna, JO Ogor



To ascertain the sensitivity of Diazo (chemical) test in comparison to the Widal (serological) test in the diagnosis of enteric fevers, blood specimens from101 patients suspected of having enteric fevers were collected. 54.5% (55) of the patients were significantly seropositive. Fifteen urine specimens from these 55 seropositive patients were positive for Diazo tests, giving a sensitivity of about 27%. Salmonella typhi was the predominant serotype causing typhoid/paratyphoid fevers, followed by S. paratypi A; S. paratyphi C and S. paratyphi B respectively. Although Diazo test does not appear to be reliable, it could still be useful alongside with Widal agglutination test in endemic rural or urban areas where electricity and facilities are absent or inadequate for routine laboratory investigations.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 115-118

Proteinuria And Occurrence Of Onchocerca Volvulus Microfilariae In Skin, Urine And Blood Of Onchocerciasis Patients After Ivermectin Treatment In Adikpo, Benue State, Nigeria

KB Tanyigna, JA Onah, EU Amuta, CO Onwuliri, IO Ujah



Fifty adult patients in Adikpo, Benue State, Nigeria having an average of 50 microfilaria/skin snip (mflss) and 2 microfilaria/milliliter (mflml) in skin and urine respectively were given a single treatment of Ivermectin at a dose rate between 150 – 200mg/kg. Five of the patients also had microfilariae in their blood. Seven days after this treatment, there was a decrease of the microfilaria from pretreatment level to 17.8% and 10% in the skin and urine respectively (i.e.82% and 90% clearance). There was 100% clearance in the blood. Trace proteinuria shown in 30 (60%) patients before treatment was increased to 45 (90%) patients after treatment. This study has revealed that Ivermectin has a great efficacy in clearing microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the skin, urine and blood of individuals. The increase in the number of patients with mild proteinuria after treatment and its implication require further investigation. It may not mean that the increase in protein content after treatment is due to Ivermectin.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 119-121

Evaluation Of The Quality Of Locally Manufactured Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Discs Used In South Eastern Nigeria

EO Ekundayo, OD Omodamiro



Locally manufactured antimicrobial susceptibility discs are becoming increasingly used in both private and government hospital laboratories in Nigeria. Data on the quality of these locally manufactured antimicrobial discs are not available. In order to provide some data, we evaluated the quality of three brands of locally manufactured antimicrobial susceptibility discs in common use in southeastern Nigeria. The three brands are Brodisk, Jirehdisk and Optudisc. The performances of these brands in agar disc diffusion assay against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were compared with that of Abtek, the imported brand. Un-interpretable zones of inhibition defined as large zones of inhibition that merged together or complete wiping out of bacterial growth at the time of reading of the plate, were common with Optudisc and Jiredisk brands. The imported brand, Abtek, did not produce any such results. While Gentamycin on Abtek produced a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 15mm, 19mm and 16mm against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively, the same antibiotic disc with the same stated potency on Brodisk an Jiredisk produced no zone of inhibition against the test bacteria. Amoxylin and Augmentin discs on Abtek produced zones of inhibition of 13mm
and 21mm against S. aureus respectively. Amoxylin disc on Brodisk did not produce any zone of inhibition against the bacterial strain while Augmentin disc on Jirehdisk produced un-interpretable result. Of the three locally made brands, Brodisk is the only one that conformed to the international standard of not having more than eight discs per
90mm plate. In our opinion, Brodisk can be recommended for clinical use in Nigeria with further improvement. The outcome of this study indicates the need for improved standardization in the production of these locally manufactured susceptibility discs.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 122-128

Microbiological studies of blood specimen from presumptively diagnosed Typhoid Fever patients in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

TA Adedare, YK Abrahim, JO Ehinmidu



Three hundred and fifteen blood samples were obtained from presumptively diagnosed typhoid patients who were referred for Widal Serological test at four diagnostic centres. The blood samples were subjected to bacteriological investigations. Salmonella and non-Salmonella organisms isolated were identified according to standard identification schemes. The Salmonella serological O – and H – antigen titre values of the patients whose blood samples were cultured, were also collated and compared with the bacteriological findings. There was generally low correlation between the antigenic (O and H) titre value and cultural isolation of the causative organisms of typhoid fever. However, as the O-antigen titre value increased from 1:20 to 1:160, the percentage of samples in which Salmonella spp. Were isolated, rose from 5.6% to 50%. There was also significant
variation in the percentage values among the four diagnostic centers (varying from 46% to 83% at O-tire value of 1:160). Beside Salmonella spp. Other organisms comprising mostly members of the Enterobacteriaceae Family, Psuedmonas spp. and Streptococcus were isolated from the blood of patients presenting high O-antigen titre values.

Keywords: Typhoid Fever Diagnosis

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 129-135

A comparative study on the prevalence of malaria parasite among HIV sero–positive and sero-negative individuals in Abakaliki Nigeria.

IR Iroha, CO Esimone, ES Amadi



A total of 300 blood samples collected from patients at the Federal Medical Centre Abakaliki were examined for HIV infection and malaria parasite using TRI-Dot Immunoassay, capillus and genie Assay and Thick film techniques. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 59% for HIV sero positive and 41% for HIV sero negative individuals
respectively. Demographically, the prevalence was shown to be highest amongst those living in urban areas (71%) compared to those living in rural areas (31%). The prevalence between sex showed that females were more affected (59%) than males (41%); people within the age range of 21 – 30 have the highest prevalence (33%) while the elderly
ones between 61 – 70 years of age were least affected (3%). The data also indicated that married people were more infected (60%) than the unmarried (40%). Statistical analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in malaria parasitaemia amongst HIV infected and non-infected individuals with respect to sex, age and marital status.

Keywords: HIV, Malaria parasitaemia, sero positive, sero negative.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 136-141

In vitro effect of some quinolone antibiotics on strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a hospital environment

RK Obi, FC Nwanebu



A total of 30 different strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from some selected wards of Madonna University Teaching Hospital (MUTH), Elele, Nigeria, using blood agar and nutrient agar. All the isolates were subjected to some selected quinolones (ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxcin and sparfloxacin) to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern using the disk diffusion method. Ofloxacin had the highest percentage
susceptibility of 93.3%, followed by ciprofloxacin with 73.3%; pefloxacin was next with 70%, sparfloxacin 63.3%, while norfloxacin recorded the lowest percentage of 50%. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the quinolones to the isolates was also determined. The results show that all the tested quinolones had an MIC ranging from 2.5-10mg/ml.

KeywordsStaphylococcus aureus, quinolones, hospital environment

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 142-146

Microbial Spectrum Of Pelvic Inflamatory Diseases In Nguru, Nigeria

KO Okon, R Ayilara, K Bello, A Uba, TA Aniesona



Pelvic inflammatory diseases, a leading gynecological problem worldwide, are associated with socio-economic and psychological costs. A retrospective study of 1350 high vaginal swabs analyzed between Jan-Dec. 2005, showed that 845 (62.8%) were positive for 9 microorganisms by culture/or wet preparation. Microbial growth was found in 645 (76.3%) cases. Polymicrobial growth was found in 90 (10.7%), fungal growth in 110 (13.0%)
cases, and 3(0.4%) yielded anaerobic growth. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 355 (42.0%) cases, followed by Escherichia coli 190 (22.5%), Trichomonas vaginalis 100 (11.8%) Candida spp and Neisseria gonorrhoeae 70 (8.3) and the least, Pseudomonas spp 5 (0.6%) Microbial-associated infection was prominent in the group 21-30 years old (46.6%) and 31-40 (23.9%) years respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern showed that mean
susceptibility greater than 50% were recorded with ofloxacin 80%, ceftazidime 80%, rifampicin 81.9% compared to mean susceptibility less that 50% recorded with trimethoprim-sulthamethoxazole 34.7%, and ampicillin 26.1%. In conclusion, the reported microbial-associated infection in PID with a prevalence of 62.8% is of public health importance. Early diagnosis of causative agents and prompt institution of chemotherapeutic agents will help to
prevent clinical complications that are expensive to treat.

Keywords: pelvic inflammatory diseases, microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 157-165