Assessment Of Leukocyte Esterase Dipstick Test In Diagnosis Of Childhood Urinary Tract Infection

SI Adeleke, MO Asani, EE Nwokedi



This is a prospective study of urinary tract infection in 65 children (38 males and 27 females, M: F ratio 1: 0.7). Urine samples were evaluated by culture, microscopy and leukocyte esterase dipstick test. Positive urine culture, with significant bacteriuria was found in 19(29.2%). Urine microscopy for leukocyturia identified positive urine culture in 6 of the 19 samples, giving a sensitivity of 43.1%. leukocyte esterase distick test correctly identified 14 of 19 urine samples with culture proven UTI (74% sensitivity). The positive and negative predictive values were 37.1% and 87.2% respectively.
The leukocyte esterase dipstick test was found to be better than leukocyturia in detecting UTI. in conclusion, leukocyte esterase is sensitive in detecting UTI, easy to perform, requires less time and does not need a highly trained personnel for the test.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (1) 2009: pp. 10-14

The Prevalence Of Trypanosome Infection In Trade Cattle, Goats And Sheep Slaughtered At The Kaduna Abattoir

OGC Ezebuiro, JN Abenga, GOC Ekejindu



The prevalence of trypanosome infection in trade cattle, goats and sheep was investigated in slaughtered animals at the Kaduna Abattoir. Wet, thin, thick films, animal inoculation, haematocrit centrifugation technique and buffy coat methods were used to detect rypanosomes in the jugular blood of the animals. The packed cell volume (PCV) was also determined. A total of 300 cattle, 300 goats and 300 sheep were examined within five months (September, 1998 – January, 1999) and the prevalence rates in cattle, goats and sheep were found to be 5.00%, 4.67% and 3.33% respectively.
Mean PCV of infected cattle was 20.33% against uninfected cattle 35.08%. In goats, the PCV was 20.29%, uninfected goats 31.56%; while that of sheep was 19.40% and uninfected 32.85%. Trypanosoma vivax infection accounted for 60%, T. brucei 26.67% and T. congolense 13.33% in cattle. In goats, T. vivax infection accounted for 71.43%, T. brucei 21.43% and T. congolense 7.14%. Also T. vivax infection accounted for 70%, T. brucei 30% and T. congolense 0% in sheep. Sex did not significantly (P>0.05) affect infection rates. Although the prevalence rate of trypanosomiasis in cattle, goats and sheep appeared low compared with the previous works, natural trypanosomiasis remains economically importance in cattle, goats and sheep in Nigeria.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (1) 2009: pp. 15-25

Quantitative Changes In Antibodies Against Onchocercal Native Antigens Two Months Postivermectin Treatment Of Onchocerciasis Patients

HO Osue, M Galadima, F Engelbrecht, L Odama, HI Edeghere



Serum antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus native sodium duodecylsulphate slat extracted antigens and epitopes recognized by three monoclonal antibodies designated Cam8, Cam22, and Cam28 were measured using indirect (sandwich) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Paired serum samples (n=32) were obtained before and two months post-ivermectin treatment. Those with increases of ten percent and above (≥10%) were 16 (50%) for IgG, 13 (40.7%) for both IgG1 and IgG4. Nine (28.2%) for IgM, eight (25%) for IgG3, IgA with four (12.5%) was the least, while IgG2 was not assayed due to cross-reaction. The higher increases in IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies in
females (n=16) than males (n=16) were significant by T-test of unpaired data (P<0.05). Those without onchocercal skin disease, OSD (n=18) had a significant increase of 20.5±29.6%, with pre- and posttreatment values of 0.59±0.15 versus 0.68±0.13 for IgG antibody (P<0.05). Both IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies for those with OSD (n=14) increased by 16.0±24.8%. Only IgG4 antibody increased with the presence of palpable nodule and higher skin microfilarial density. Trend exhibited by Cam 22 and Cam 8 were similar to that of IgG and IgG4, respectively. In conclusion, while IgG1 and IgG4 were both associated with skin diseases, IgG4 assay proved more suitable for onchocerciasis drug screening.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (1) 2009: pp. 26-37