Infection with high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) such as HPVs 16 and 18 is the main cause of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV 2), Treponema pallidum and some sexual behaviour on malignant progression of cervical lesion in Douala, Cameroon. From July 2009 to January 2010, we performed routine cervical smears to 163 consenting women, who completed a questionnaire on risk factors of cervical cancer. Blood samples were obtained for each of these women and used for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis, HSV 2 and Treponema pallidum. Results obtained showed that 26/163 (17 LSIL and 9 HSIL) of women had abnormal cytology, 75.5% (123/163) had HSV 2 infection, 19% (31/163) infected by Chlamydia trachomatis and 4.3% (7/163) infected by Treponema pallidum. Among the LSIL-positive women 35.3% (6/17) and 94.1% (16/17) were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and HSV 2 respectively. Among those with HSIL cytology, 22.2% (2/9), 66.7% (6/9) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively had Chlamydia trachomatis, HSV 2 and Treponema pallidum. High parity and pregnancy rate was observed among women with positive cytology. Our finding shown high rate of cervical abnormalities among women infected with HSV 2; and among those with a higher number of parities and pregnancies. These results suggest that further investigations should be made in Cameroon to access real burden of these risk factors in the progression and persistence of cervical lesion.
Key words: risk factors, cervical cancer, HSV 2, Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted infections.