Binding to CSA receptor is associated with asymptomatic and mild malaria: a preliminary study using P.falciparum field isolates from Sudan

DA Hassan, HS Mohamed, AM El-Hussein, ME Ibrahim, NH Abdulhadi



Malaria imposes great socio-economic burden on humanity, and afflicts approximately 90 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions, almost one half of them are in Africa, South of Sahara. Sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes within the small vessels of vital organs is a key event in the pathogenesis of malaria and responsible of virulence of Plasmodium falciparum parasite. To find out whether the ability of infected red blood cells (IRBCs) to adhere to a specific receptor is a risk factor for developing severe clinical manifestation of the disease, in-vitro cytoadhesion and inhibition experiments were performed on field isolates obtained from five symptomatic and five asymptomatic patients inhabiting Gazira State, Central Sudan. The results showed significant lower levels (p<0.02) of cytoadhesion among asymptomatic compared to symptomatic patients. Percent inhibition by FA6-152, a monoclonal antibody for CD36, was comparable between the two study groups. However, the inhibition by CSA protein was less among symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients. These results shed light on possible role of CSA receptors expressed on endothelial cells in ameliorating the events associated with the severe phenotype of the disease.

Laboratory diagnosis of malaria in children under five years in a rural community: microscopy versus malaria PF test

CP Enwuru, SI Umeh, UM Abasi, RC Egbuobi



The morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in children below 5 years is really worrisome especially in the rural communities with little or no laboratory diagnostic facilities. This study was carried out to compare microscopy with Malaria Pf test for the diagnosis of malaria in a rural community in Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo State. Two hundred and fifty blood smears of children below 5 years were stained with Giemsa and examined microscopically for malaria parasites. Also the Malaria Pf rapid diagnostic test was used to test the same blood samples for malaria antigens. Thirty two per cent of the blood samples were positive for malaria parasite. Compared with microscopy, the sensitivity of the Malaria Pf test was 90.0%, the specificity was 98.2%. The positive predictive value was 96.0% and negative predictive value was 95.4%. The Malaria Pf test is reliable in the parasite based diagnosis of malaria in children under 5 years. We recommend the application of this test for parasitological confirmation of malaria in all places where it is not possible to provide facilities for good quality microscopy especially in the rural communities.


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Laboratory diagnosis of malaria in children under five years in a rural community microscopy versus malaria PF test

Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples of suspected typoid patients in Warri, Nigeria

DA Ehwarieme



This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which 20(14.7%) was positive for the pathogen. The multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates obtained (n=16; 80.0%), exhibiting the Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole and Tetracyclin (ACCoT) resistance profile, were subjected to plasmid curing. All (100%) of these MDR isolates bore their resistance markers on plasmids, as they lost their resistance sequel to the curing experiment. The low prevalence (14.7%) of the pathogen in the blood samples indicate that a good number of the suspected typhoid cases may not be incidences of the disease afterall. Furthermore, the high prevalence of MDR and plasmid-mediated MDR (80.0% and 100% respectively) isolates, suggest that treatment failures may be rampant if precise susceptibility test is not conducted prior to prescription.

Key words: Multidrug resistant, blood culture, typhoid fever.

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Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples of suspected typoid patients in Warri Nigeria