Antimicrobial resistance in Madagascar: a review of the current situation and challenges

Rasamiravaka, T.

Laboratory of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Department of Applied and Fundamental Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antananarivo (UA), BP 906, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health threat worldwide occurring in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. It is encouraging that governments of countries around the world are beginning to pay attention to the issue of AMR that serves to undermine the future of modern medicine. However, each country solution approaches to this issue will differ in terms of magnitude and response capacity. Madagascar is a low-income country and one of the poorest countries in the world with poor environmental hygiene practices and easy availability of antimicrobial drugs without medical prescription. These particular contexts certainly influence the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. This review presents reported data on AMR from 2001 to 2018 in Madagascar among the World Health Organization (WHO) priority human pathogens, and determined the scope and magnitude of the AMR problems in the particular context of this low-income country, which could help in formulating effective response strategies for control of AMRs in Madagascar.

Key words: Antimicrobials, Madagascar, Multi-drug resistance, Prevalence

Received December 3, 2019; Revised April 10, 2020; Accepted April 11, 2020
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Résistance aux antimicrobiens à Madagascar: bilan de la situation actuelle et des défis

Rasamiravaka, T.

Laboratoire de biotechnologie et de microbiologie, Département de biochimie appliquée et fondamentale, Faculté des sciences, Université d’Antananarivo (UA), BP 906, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar Continue reading “Antimicrobial resistance in Madagascar: a review of the current situation and challenges”

Phytotherapy as an alternative for the treatment of human papilloma virus infections in Nigeria: a review

*1Yusuf, L., 1,2Bala, J. A., 1Aliyu, I. A., 1Kabir, I. M., 1Abdulkadir, S., 1,3Doro, A. B., and 1Kumurya A, S.

1Microbiology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, P.M.B 3011, Kano, Nigeria

2Virology Unit, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, 43400, Serndang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

3Federal Medical Centre Katsina, PMB 2121, Katsina, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been incriminated as the causal agent of cervical cancer which has been rated as the second most common cancers among women in developing countries and seventh most common cancers in the developed world. In spite of the fact that HPV has been the major cause of cervical cancer, the dilemma lies in finding a cost-effective therapy. Approximately 291 million women are infected with HPV worldwide, 32% of whom are infected with HPV16 or HPV18. The estimated prevalence of HPV in sub-Saharan Africa is 24% and 11.7% globally. There have been studies reporting specific HPV prevalence rates in some part of Nigeria, with 37% in Abuja, 10% in Port Harcourt, and 26.3% in Ibadan. In the Nigeria population, awareness of HPV infections is low, HPV vaccines are inadequate, and the cost of HPV vaccination per person is beyond what an average citizen can afford. It has been suggested that herbal therapy such as Echinacea therapy reduces HPV replication and enhances the immune system. Although there is yet no scientific proof of the efficacy of Echinacea therapy against HPV infections, future emphasis should be placed on scientific research into this alternative therapy. There is need for more studies on development of antiviral agents against HPV, with a prospect of easy accessibility and affordability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Phytotherapy; HPV; Cervical cancer; Nigeria

Received Feb 23, 2020; Revised March 11, 2020; Accepted March 17, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

La phytothérapie comme alternative au traitement des infections à papilloma virus humain au Nigéria: une revue

*1Yusuf, L., 1,2Bala, J. A., 1Aliyu, I. A., 1Kabir, I. M., 1Abdulkadir, S., 1,3Doro, A. B., et 1Kumurya A, S Continue reading “Phytotherapy as an alternative for the treatment of human papilloma virus infections in Nigeria: a review”

Seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection of cattle in Setif, Algeria

*1Benseghir, H., 2Amara-Korba, A., 1Azzag, N., 1Hezil, D., and 1Ghalmi, F.

1Research Laboratory Management of Local Animal Resources, Higher National Veterinary School, El Alia, Oued Smar, 1615, Algiers, Algeria

2Leptospira unit, Pasteur Institute of Algeria, Rue 1 of Doctor LAVERAN, Hamma Anassers Algiers, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by Leptospira interrogans responsible for heavy loss both economically and in health, in humans and animals. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection in cattle in the state of Setif, northeastern Algeria.

Methodology: Between the period 2015 and 2019, a total of 48 randomly selected herds of cattle were investigated, and 406 sera from apparently healthy cattle were analyzed using an indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). In order to determine possible risk factors related to leptospirosis, a pre-validated questionnaire was administered to herd owners.

Results: The herd prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo was 31.25% (15/48, 95% CI 19.95–45.33) while the cattle prevalence was 5.42% (22/406, 95% CI 3.61–8.07). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the age of cattle between 3 and 6 years (OR = 9.25; p< 0.03), breeding herd size > 20 cows (OR = 13.65; p< 0.01), and semi-intensive management system (OR = 0.21; p< 0,02) were significantly associated with seropositivity to Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo.

Conclusion: We concluded from this study that Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo is circulating among cattle farms in the state of Setif, Algeria. Furthermore, we recommend more studies to be carried out to prove the infectivity and implementation good hygienic practices among cattle farms and people at risk.

Keywords: ELISA, herds, questionnaire, leptospirosis, prevalence, Algeria

Received Jan 27, 2020; Revised March 10, 2020; Accepted March 11, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Séroprévalence et facteurs de risque associés de l’infection à Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo des bovins à Sétif, Algérie

*1Benseghir, H., 2Amara-Korba, A., 1Azzag, N., 1Hezil, D., et 1Ghalmi, F. Continue reading “Seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection of cattle in Setif, Algeria”

Production and efficacy testing of live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against experimental Salmonella Kentucky infection in broiler chickens

*1Igomu, E. E., 2Fagbamila, I. O., 3Elayoni, E. E., 1Pwajok, D., 1Agu, G. C., 4Govwang, P. F., 5Msheliza, E. G., 5Oguche, M. O., and 6Mamman, P. H.

*1Bacterial Vaccine Production Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B. 01, Vom, Nigeria

2Bacterial Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

3Biological Science Department, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

4Livestock Investigation Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

5Central Diagnostic Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria 6Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348032786224

Abstract:
Background: Salmonella Kentucky is of great veterinary and public health concern and exhibits the capacities to emerge as the most prominent Salmonella serotype in human disease. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prepared live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against experimentally induced salmonellosis caused by S. Kentucky in broiler chickens.

Methods: Field isolate of S. Kentucky was obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Nigeria and used in the preparation of experimental vaccines. Broiler chickens purchased and ascertained to be free of Salmonellae were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of 20 chicks each. Five-bromouracil at a concentration of 1000μg/ml was used in attenuation of S. Kentucky in preparation of the live vaccine and 0.6% formaldehyde was used in inactivation of S. Kentucky for preparation of the inactivated vaccine. Group 1 chicks were immunized with the live vaccine subcutaneously at 0.5ml per bird, group 2 received 1ml of the inactivated vaccine subcutaneously, and group 3 served as unvaccinated/control.

Results: There was 100% faecal inhibition and 100% vaccinal efficacy in broiler chickens immunized with the live vaccine on day 56 of age, and 49.6% faecal inhibition and 82.8% vaccinal efficacy in broiler chickens immunized with the inactivated vaccine on day 56 of age when compared with the unvaccinated control. The vaccinated birds also showed higher antibody (IgY) titre levels from day 21 to day 56 of age (p<0.001) on all sampling days when values were compared with the unvaccinated birds.

Conclusion: The interplay between vaccination protocol that includes administration of live attenuated or inactivated S. Kentucky vaccines and developed antibody (IgY) can reduce intestinal colonization by S. Kentucky and subsequent shedding of the serovar in faeces.

Keywords: Salmonella Kentucky, 5-bromouracil, IgY, Antibody, Vaccine

Received January 9, 2019; Revised April 11, 2020; Accepted April 12, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Production et tests d’efficacité de vaccins vivants atténués et inactivés contre une infection expérimentale à Salmonella Kentucky chez des poulets de chair

*1Igomu, E. E., 2Fagbamila, I. O., 3Elayoni, E. E., 1Pwajok, D., 1Agu, G.C., 4Govwang, P. F., 5Msheliza, E. G., 5Oguche, M. O., et 6Mamman, P. H. Continue reading “Production and efficacy testing of live attenuated and inactivated vaccines against experimental Salmonella Kentucky infection in broiler chickens”

Active tuberculosis among adult HIV-infected patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary health facility in Lafia, northcentral Nigeria

*1Audu, E. S., 2Adiukwu, C., 3Bello, S., 4Abdulmajid, S., 4Anyuabaga, B., 5Ashuku, Y. A., and 6Anazodo, M.

1Department of Medical Microbiology/Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

2Department of Internal Medicine, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

3Department of Paediatrics/Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

4Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

5College of Medicine, Federal University, Lafia

6Research Unit, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is a major problem in Nigeria and other countries that are ravaged by a high burden of both diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV is 16-27 times that of HIV negative persons. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of developing TB, there are factors which predispose those on ART to TB. This study sought to determine the prevalence of TB among adults on ART in our facility and identify the predisposing factors.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study utilizing data from clinical records (folders and electronic) of adult HIV patients who are accessing ART in our facility and have been on ART for at least 6 months. A proforma was used to collect data including demographic, clinical, ART and laboratory information of the patients. The data were entered into SPSS version 23 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis. Associations were tested using Chi square with 95% confidence level.

Results: A total of 457 patients were studied, aged 18-69 years (mean age 38.3± 10 years), and 72.4% females. Majority were married (81%), unemployed (53.8%), had mean baseline CD4 cell count of 267.4 ± 185 cells/mm3 and a mean duration on ART of 100.9± 39 months. Seventeen point three percent of the patients had a previous history of TB before or within 6 months of commencement of ART. Thirteen (2.8%) of the patients had active TB while on ART. Majority of those who had active TB were females (76.9%), married (76.9%), unemployed (46%), had no previous history of TB (53.8%), baseline CD4 cell count of ≤ 350 cells/mm3 and were on first line ART medication. There was however no significant statistical association of active TB with any of these factors.

Conclusion: Few patients had active TB while on ART in this study. The high frequency of TB in those who had low baseline CD4 cell count and baseline WHO stage shows the importance of early initiation of ART in people living with HIV (PLHIV). There is need for regular screening of PLHIV for TB and innovative approaches to get people with HIV to know their TB status as well as early commencement of ART.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, Active Tuberculosis, Antiretroviral therapy.

Received Dec 9, 2019; Revised March 15, 2020; Accepted March 18, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Tuberculose active chez des patients adultes infectés par le VIH ayant accès à un traitement antirétroviral dans un établissement de santé tertiaire à Lafia, au centre-nord du Nigéria

*1Audu, E. S., 2Adiukwu, C., 3Bello, S., 4Abdulmajid, S., 4Anyuabaga, B., 5Ashuku, Y. A., et 6Anazodo, M. Continue reading “Active tuberculosis among adult HIV-infected patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary health facility in Lafia, northcentral Nigeria”

Assessment of the performance of six in vitro diagnostic kits for qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in human serum or plasma in Lomé, Togo

*1,2Salou, M., 1Ehlan, A., 2Dossim, S., 1Ali-Edje, K., 1Ouro-Medeli, A., 1Douffan, M., and 1,3Dagnra, A.

1National Reference Center for HIV and STIs (CNR HIV/STI)

2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Togo

3Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Togo *Correspondence to: [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Several in vitro diagnostic (IVD) test kits for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are commercially available. The question is whether they are performing well for both screening and diagnosis or not? Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of six commercially available HBsAg detection kits in Togo.

Methods: This study was conducted at the National Reference Center for HIV/STI testing in Lomé (CNR-VIH/IST), Togo. Reference sera used for the assessment were collected from blood donors and patients with history of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection between 2008 and 2014, and includes 200 non-reactive HBsAg and 150 reactive HBsAg sera that were confirmed with a reference method which consisted of the combination of an ELISA, a RDT, and a molecular test. Four ELISA kits (EKOlab ELISA-HBsAg; HEPALISA ULTRA; HEPALISA; Murex AgHBs Version 3) and two RDTs kits (ACON AgHBs and OnSite HBsAg Rapid Test-Cassette) were then evaluated using these serum samples. The EPI-INFO software version 7.2 was used to determine the 95% confidence interval and performed statistical analysis.

Results: Reference serum samples were collected from the population with 65.0% under 40 years of age and 61.2% males. The sensitivity of the 4 ELISA tests compared to the reference method was 100%. Apart from the HEPALISA test with a specificity of 100.0%, the specificity of the other three ELISA tests (Murex HBsAg version 3, HEPALISA ULTRA and EKOlab ELISA-HBsAg) were 98.4%, 97.3% and 91.8% respectively. For the RDTs, the sensitivity of ACON HBsAg and OnSite HBsAg Rapid Test-Cassette was 70.0% and 95.6% respectively while the specificity was 100.0% for both.

Conclusion: The ELISA tests evaluated were more sensitive than the RDTs, and HEPALISA test was the most efficient. Of the two RDTs, the OnSite HBsAg Rapid Test-Cassette was more sensitive. Our findings highlight the need for onsite verification of in vitro diagnostic kits for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen before their routine use in Togo.

Keywords: HBV, HBsAg, Performance, IVD test

Received Aug 16, 2019; Revised March 27, 2020; Accepted March 28, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Évaluation des performances de six kits de diagnostic in vitro pour la détection qualitative de l’antigène de surface du virus de l’hépatite B (HBsAg) dans le sérum ou le plasma humain à Lomé, Togo

*1,2Salou, M., 1Ehlan, A., 2Dossim, S., 1Ali-Edje, K., 1Ouro-Medeli, A., 1Douffan, M., et 1,3Dagnra, A. Continue reading “Assessment of the performance of six in vitro diagnostic kits for qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in human serum or plasma in Lomé, Togo”

Laboratory survey of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from selected tertiary hospitals in south-eastern Nigeria

*1Ugah, U. I., and 2Udeani, T. K.

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2347062154353

Abstract:

Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases are produced by Gram-negative bacteria and most strains producing them belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The greatest challenge with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is their propensity to acquire multidrug resistance traits. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among selected tertiary hospitals in south-eastern Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 400 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained from patients attending five selected tertiary hospitals and were identified to species level by Gram staining and conventional biochemical tests. Screening for ESBL production was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method using 30μg disk of ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam while confirmatory test was done using combination disk test based on the 2016 CLSI guidelines.

Results: The prevalence of ESBL production among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from selected hospitals in southeast Nigeria is 61.5% (246 of 400). Among the isolates obtained, the highest prevalence was observed in Klebsiella oxytoca (100%) while the least prevalence was seen in Morganella morganii (50.0%). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae had rates of 61.8% and 62.3% respectively. Among the States of the south-east Nigeria, selected hospital in Ebonyi had a prevalence of 83.5%, Abia 63.6%, Anambra 61.5%, Enugu 51.7% and Imo 36.5%. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae differ significantly between the States (p=0.000).

Conclusion: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated from different participants, from the selected tertiary hospitals in south-eastern Nigeria. Therefore, we report a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in south-eastern Nigeria.

Keywords: ESBL, Enterobacteriaceae, resistant strains, southeast Nigeria

Received Feb 12, 2020; Revised March 27, 2020; Accepted March 28, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Enquête en laboratoire sur les entérobactéries productrices de bêta-lactamases à spectre étendu de certains hôpitaux tertiaires du sud-est du Nigéria

*1Ugah, U. I., et 2Udeani, T. K. Continue reading “Laboratory survey of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from selected tertiary hospitals in south-eastern Nigeria”

Antifungal susceptibility and detection of mutant ERG11 gene in vaginal Candida isolates in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

Ikenyi, C. L., *Ekuma, A. E., and Atting, I. A.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348023075572

Abstract:
Background: Candida vulvovaginitis is an important cause of morbidity among women. Fluconazole and other azoles are among the commonest antifungal agents used for the treatment of this condition. Azole resistance among Candida species is an increasing problem, and mutations in the ERG11 gene is the commonest cause of fluconazole resistance in Candida. The objectives of this study are to determine antifungal susceptibility of vaginal Candida isolates and detect carriage of mutant ERG11 gene by them.

Methods: High vaginal swabs obtained from 260 participants were cultured on Saboraud’s Dextrose agar (SDA) for isolation of Candida, and identified by growth on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube and carbohydrate fermentation tests. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, nystatin and flucytosine was determined by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method on supplemented Mueller Hinton agar. ERG11 gene was detected by conventional singleplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

Results: Candida was isolated from 126 of 260 (48.5%) participants, and the identified species were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilopsis and Candida famata. There were 112 (88.9%) isolates susceptible to fluconazole, 122 (96.8%) to voriconazole, 111 (88.1%) to nystatin, and 16 (6.6%) to flucytosine. The mutant ERG11 gene was detected in all four fluconazole-resistant isolates but not from any of five randomly selected fluconazole susceptible dose dependent (SDD) isolates.

Conclusion: Azole resistance among Candida in this environment is associated with mutant ERG11 gene expression.

Keywords: antifungi, fluconazole, Candida, ERG11, PCR

Received March 6, 2020; Revised April 22, 2020; Accepted April 24, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Sensibilité antifongique et détection du gène ERG11 mutant dans des isolats vaginaux de Candida à l’hôpital universitaire de Uyo, Uyo, Nigéria

Ikenyi, C. L., *Ekuma, A. E., et Atting, I. A.
Département de microbiologie médicale et de parasitologie, Université d’Uyo, Uyo, Nigéria *Correspondance à: [email protected]; +2348023075572

Abstrait:
Contexte: La vulvovaginite à Candida est une cause importante de morbidité chez les femmes. Le fluconazole et d’autres azoles sont parmi les agents antifongiques les plus couramment utilisés pour le traitement de cette condition. La résistance à l’azole chez les espèces de Candida est un problème croissant, et les mutations du gène ERG11 sont la cause la plus fréquente de résistance au fluconazole chez Candida. Les objectifs de cette étude sont de déterminer la sensibilité antifongique des isolats vaginaux de Candida et de détecter le transport du gène ERG11 mutant par eux.

Méthodes: Des écouvillons vaginaux élevés obtenus auprès de 260 participants ont été cultivés sur gélose Dextrose de Saboraud (SDA) pour l’isolement de Candida, et identifiés par croissance sur CHROMagar Candida, tube germinatif et tests de fermentation des glucides. La sensibilité antifongique au fluconazole, au voriconazole, à la nystatine et à la flucytosine a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion sur disque de Kirby Bauer sur de la gélose Mueller Hinton complétée. Le gène ERG11 a été détecté par un test classique de réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR).

Résultats: Candida a été isolé sur 126 des 260 participants (48,5%), et les espèces identifiées étaient Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilopsis et Candida famata. Il y avait 112 (88,9%) isolats sensibles au fluconazole, 122 (96,8%) au voriconazole, 111 (88,1%) à la nystatine et 16 (6,6%) à la flucytosine. Le gène ERG11 mutant a été détecté dans les quatre isolats résistants au fluconazole, mais pas dans aucun des cinq isolats dépendants de la dose (SDD) sensibles au fluconazole sélectionnés au hasard.

Conclusion: la résistance à l’azole chez Candida dans cet environnement est associée à l’expression du gène ERG11 mutant.

Mots-clés: antifongiques, fluconazole, Candida, ERG11, PCR

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Antifungal susceptibility and detection of mutant ERG11 gene in vaginal Candida isolates in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

Qualitative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of UV sterilization chambers employed by barbershops in Benin City, Nigeria

*1Adebiyi, K. S., 1Emeka-Ifebi, A., 2Ogbonnaya., M. J., and 1Isiekwene, A. C.

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348138084808

Abstract:
Background: Barbershops where men and boys’ hair are cut or shaved, have been implicated in the transmission of pathogens. With this growing concern, barbers are now acquiring and employing UV sterilization chambers to re-assure customers of the safety of their instrument. This study investigated the qualitative efficacy of the UV sterilization chambers employed by selected barbers in Benin City, Nigeria.

Methods: Swab samples of instruments (clippers, combs and brushes) were collected from 30 barbershops randomly selected from 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benin City before and after exposure to UV sterilization chambers employed by each barbershop. Standard microbiology techniques were employed to culture and identify the microbial (bacteria and fungi) isolates.

Results: A total of 15 genera of microorganisms (8 bacteria and 7 fungi) were identified. Three bacterial genera (Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp.) and 5 fungi genera (Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichophyton sp. and Penicillium sp) were isolated from sampled instruments at the barbershops in all 6 LGAs. Evaluation of efficacy of the UV sterilization chambers showed that all microbial isolates survived exposure time of 1 min. Antimicrobial efficacy of the UV chamber increases with longer duration (time) of exposure and decreases with the age of UV chambers, with chamber of 5-6 years old being least efficacious.

Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of myriads of microorganisms including pathogenic strains on instruments used in barbershops within Benin City. It is recommended that exposure of 60 mins is the ideal duration for UV sterilization chambers used in barbershops and barbers in Benin City should endeavor to replace their UV chambers after continual use for a period of 3 years.

Keywords: microbes, antimicrobial efficacy, UV sterilization, barbershop, Benin City

Received March 1, 2020; Revised April 25, 2020; Accepted April 27, 2020 Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access.

This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Évaluation qualitative de l’efficacité antimicrobienne des chambres de stérilisation UV utilisées par les salons de coiffure à Benin City, Nigéria

*1Adebiyi, K. S., 1Emeka-Ifebi, A., 2Ogbonnaya., M. J., et 1Isiekwene, A. C. Continue reading “Qualitative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of UV sterilization chambers employed by barbershops in Benin City, Nigeria”

Antibiogram of Pseudomonas isolates and potential public health impact of an abattoir effluent in Benin City, Nigeria

*Odjadjare, E. E. O., and Ebowemen, M. J.

Environmental, Public Health and Bioresource Microbiology Research Group (EPHBIOMREG), Department of Biological Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, P.M.B. 1100 Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Bacteria from abattoir wastes are often linked to livestock carcasses previously exposed to continuous antimicrobial use and misuse; thereby creating opportunity for community spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains such as Pseudomonas spp. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiogram of Pseudomonas isolates and bacteriological quality of an abattoir effluent in lieu of its potential public health impact.

Methodology: Water samples were collected weekly for six weeks from discharge point (DP) of the abattoir effluent, effluent receiving canal confluence point (CP), and 500 m upstream (US) and 500 m downstream (DS) from points where CP made contact with the Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria. Bacteria spp. were isolated, enumerated (heterotrophic bacterial plate, coliform, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas counts) and identified using standard microbiological techniques. Identity of Pseudomonas isolates was confirmed by PCR while antibiogram of selected isolates was evaluated and interpreted according to the disk diffusion method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Results: Heterotrophic bacteria plate counts (HPC) varied from 1.1×103 ± 0.28 CFU/ml to 1.95×106 ± 0.48 CFU/ml; total coliform counts ranged between 0.0 and 1.2×106 ± 0.28 CFU/ml while mean E. coli count varied from 0.0 to 4.9×105 ± 0.49 CFU/ml, and Pseudomonas counts were between 0.0 to 1.4×103 CFU/ml. The selected strains of Pseudomonas spp (n=50) showed resistance to oxacillin (100%), vancomycin (52%), tetracycline (50%), gentamycin (26%) and ceftriaxone (20%), while they were sensitive to ceftazidime (82%), ofloxacin (80%) and amikacin (74%). MDR phenotype was observed in 9 (18%) of the test isolates.

Conclusion: The study revealed that untreated abattoir effluent was a considerable source of MDR Pseudomonas spp. among other bacteriological pollutants (e.g. HPC, coliform and E. coli) that could compromise the quality of the receiving river in lieu of public health concerns of riverside communities that depend on this vital water resource for their subsistence.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, MDR,  antibiogram, abattoir effluent, public health

Received March 16, 2020; Revised April 24, 2020; Accepted April 26, 2020

Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

 

Antibiogramme des isolats de Pseudomonas et impact potentiel sur la santé publique d’un effluent d’abattoir à Benin City, Nigeria

*Odjadjare, E. E. O., et Ebowemen, M. J.

Groupe de recherche sur l’environnement, la santé publique et la microbiologie des bioressources (EPHBIOMREG), Département des sciences biologiques, Université Benson Idahosa, P.M.B. 1100 Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria Continue reading “Antibiogram of Pseudomonas isolates and potential public health impact of an abattoir effluent in Benin City, Nigeria”