Africa’s COVID-19 story: cheap innovation technology and climate protective effect to her rescue?

*Adesokan, A., and MacLean, M.

PreciseMed 272 Bath Street, Glasgow, G2 4JR Scotland

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
As the COVID-19 pandemic sweeps the globe, causing tens of thousands of deaths in most Western countries with economies round the world in turmoil, Africa has so far been largely spared the kind of impact that has thrown the United States, South America and Europe into crisis. Most African countries remain seriously unprepared to handle the pandemic of the nature the Western world is dealing with; Africa, from Mali to Ethiopia to Libya and down to South Africa, have insufficient ventilators or intensive care beds to cope with COVID-19 should it strike with ferocity as it is doing in the Western world. As COVID-19 reaches the shores of Africa, despite poor health facilities, poor living conditions and inadequate availability of clean water across the continent, Africans are still putting up a fight taking COVID-19 head on with use of cheap technology, and help from the continent’s protective climate. However, Africa cannot afford to be complacent. African countries must continue to adopt strict social distancing measures, educate their people on the importance of intake of regular vitamin D, good exercising habit, good sleep pattern, adequate hand hygiene measures, as well as strictly enforcing the “test, trace and isolate“ model to the letter for the continent to take on the fight head on and wage a proper war against COVID-19. Continue reading “Africa’s COVID-19 story: cheap innovation technology and climate protective effect to her rescue?”

Use of dexamethasone in the management of respiratory tract infections

*1Adegboro, B., 2Abayomi, S. A., 1Imran, J., and 3Sanni, E. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

3Department of Haematology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of corticosteroid drugs that has been useful for the management of some pathological disorders because it affects a protean number of signaling pathways. It is used as adjunct therapy in the management of sepsis, arthritis, cardiac transplant, blood, hormone/immune system disorders, allergic reaction, skin, eye conditions, cancer and other pathologic disorders and as a mainstay of therapy in autoimmune hepatitis. With the advent of COVID-19, there have been investigations of its use as anti-inflammatory agent in severely ill patients. This present review elucidates the various studies on the use of dexamethasone in the management of severe respiratory tract infections, with the ultimate aim of reducing mortality amongst severely ill patients, including COVID-19. Continue reading “Use of dexamethasone in the management of respiratory tract infections”

Enterovirus and Parechovirus meningitis in children: a review of the epidemiology, diagnostic challenges, and significance of on-site CSF virology tests in tropical paediatric patients’ care

1,2Kabuga, A. I., 1Nejati, A., and *1,3Shahmahmoodi, S.
1Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria 3Food Microbiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +989121909972

Abstract:

Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses are increasingly recognized as the cause of aseptic meningitis, especially in the paediatric age group. However, because of indistinguishable clinical features with bacterial meningitis, many clinicians cannot make a clear distinction in disease presentation, and a large number of cases go undiagnosed. Although polymerase chain reaction is the current standard diagnostic approach, it takes many hours or days to get a result and these tests are not available at primary and secondary levels of care in many resource-poor countries. Furthermore, diagnosis is often difficult in children due to nonspecific cellular and biochemical cerebrospinal fluid findings. Some affected children may develop neurologic or/and systemic complications, resulting in prolonged hospital admission, increasing the risk of avoidable deaths, and healthcare expenditures. This review focuses on epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of Enterovirus and Parechovirus meningitis, highlighting the challenges in diagnosis and the potential roles of on-site CSF virology tests in improving the quality of paediatric patient’s care. The information provided should help early case detection, thereby ensuring avoidance of unnecessary antibiotics, minimal complications, a short period of hospital stays, and a reduction in healthcare-associated costs. Continue reading “Enterovirus and Parechovirus meningitis in children: a review of the epidemiology, diagnostic challenges, and significance of on-site CSF virology tests in tropical paediatric patients’ care”

Demographic attributes of COVID-19 patients in an Infectious Disease Center of Nigeria

*1Arinola, G. O., 2Fashina, O. A., 3Oluyomi Ishola, O. C., 2Akinbola, O. I., 4Akinbile, S. A., 4Eegunjobi, A. O., 5Bello, M. D., 1Edem, F. V., 1Rahamon, S. K., 6Famuyiwa, O. I., 7Olaoti, A. J., 8Olaniyan, O. A., 5Oke, A. C., 10Fowotade, A., 11Abimbola, O., 5Johnson, J. O., 5Fagbemi, O. S., 9Salami, F., and 5,12Alonge, T. O.

1Department of Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

2Department of Medical Microbiology, University College Hospital, lbadan

3National Blood Transfusion Service, Total Garden, Ibadan

4Central Diagnostic Centre, Total Garden, lbadan

5lnfectious Disease Centre, Olodo, lbadan

6Department of Chemical Pathology, University College Hospital, lbadan

7General Hospital, lgboho

8Department of Chemical Pathology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso

9Oyo State Ministry of Health, Ibadan

10Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ibadan

11Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan

12Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234 80-23451520; ORCID number: 0000-0001-7901-1498

Abstract:
Background: As part of our contribution to the growing pool of knowledge on the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study describes the demographic features of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at Infectious Disease Center (IDC), Olodo, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Continue reading “Demographic attributes of COVID-19 patients in an Infectious Disease Center of Nigeria”

Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase in Regional Military University Hospital of Oran, Algeria: antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and detection of blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes

*1Benbrahim, C., 1Barka, M. S., 2Benmahdi, L., 3Zatout, A., and 1Khadir, A.

1Laboratory of Applied Microbiology in Food, Biomedical and Environment (LAMAABE), Department of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life, Earth and Universal Sciences, Abou Bekr Belkaid University, 13000 Tlemcen, Algeria

2Laboratory of Microbiology, Regional Military University Hospital, Oran, Algeria

3Laboratory of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of Abdlhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen commonly associated with severe nosocomial and community acquired infections especially through the acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESβL) and biofilm formation capacity. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of K. pneumoniae ESβL (KP-ESβL)-producing isolates in the Regional Military University Hospital of Oran (HMRUO) Algeria, characterize their antibiotic resistance profile, genetically detect blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes, and evaluate their biofilm formation capacity. Continue reading “Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase in Regional Military University Hospital of Oran, Algeria: antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and detection of blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes”

ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase co-production in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria from HIV-infected patients in southwestern Nigeria

*Adeyemi, F. M., and Akinde, S. B.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234 803 494 0747

Abstract:
Background: The rising global emergence of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) producing β-lactam hydrolysing enzymes in clinical infections constitutes a growing public health threat. This study investigated the occurrence of co-production of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among GNB isolated from HIV-infected patients in two tertiary healthcare facilities in southwest Nigeria. Continue reading “ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase co-production in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria from HIV-infected patients in southwestern Nigeria”

Prevalence and factors associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia in University Hospital of Befelatanana, Madagascar

*1Rakotovao-Ravahatra Z. D., 2Randriatsarafara, F. M., 3Rakotovao, A. L., and 3Rasamindrakotroka, A.

1Laboratory of Joseph Raseta Befelatanana, University Hospital, Antananarivo, Madagascar

2Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar

3Medical Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +261 34 09 301 20

Abstract:
Background: The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major cause of nosocomial bacteraemia. The objectives of this study are to describe the antibiotic resistance pattern of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae responsible for bacteraemia and identify factors associated with these infections in a University Hospital in Madagascar. Continue reading “Prevalence and factors associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia in University Hospital of Befelatanana, Madagascar”

Antimicrobial Stewardship Implementation in Nigerian Hospitals: Gaps and Challenges

*1Iregbu, K. C., 1Nwajiobi-Princewill, P. I., 1Medugu, N., 2Umeokonkwo, C. D., 3Uwaezuoke, N. S., 4Peter, Y. J., 5Nwafia, I. N., 6Eliukwu, C., 7Shettima, S. A., 8Suleiman, M. R., 9Awopeju, T. A., 10Udoh, U., 11Adedosu, N., 12Mohammed, A., 13Oshun, P., 14Ekuma, A., 15Manga, M. M., 16Osaigbovo, I. I., 17Ejembi, C. J., 18Akujobi, C. N., 19Samuel, S. O., 20Taiwo, S. S., and 13Oduyebo, O. O.

1National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria;

2Alex Ekwueme Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki;

3Federal Medical Centre, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria;

4University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada;

5University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu;

6Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria;

7Federal Medical Centre, Yola;

8Federal Medical Centre, Katsina;

9University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt;

10University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar;

11Federal Medical Centre, Owo;

12Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto;

13Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos;

14University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo;

15Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe;

16University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City;

17Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria;

18Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi;

19Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua;

20Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major clinical challenge globally. It is mainly a consequence of inappropriate prescribing and use of antibiotics. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) ensures that antibiotics are prescribed and used appropriately. This study assessed AMS practice in selected Nigerian hospitals. Continue reading “Antimicrobial Stewardship Implementation in Nigerian Hospitals: Gaps and Challenges”

Long term outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians and those co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses

*1Okwuraiwe, A. P., 1Audu, R. A., 1Ige, F. A., 1Salu, O. B., 1Onwuamah, C. K., & 2Musa, A. Z.

1Centre for Human Virology and Genomics, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria 2Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +2347039303050

Abstract:
Background: HIV co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common, largely due to shared routes of transmission, but paucity of data exists for long term treatment outcomes of HIV infected patients, and those co-infected with HBV and HCV despite the high burden in Nigeria. The aim of study was to describe the long-term treatment outcomes in HIV infected Nigerians and to assess the effect of HBV and HCV co-infections on long-term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Continue reading “Long term outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians and those co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses”

Comparative evaluation of hydrophilic bases for improved delivery of Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid in antimicrobial ointment

*Oyedele, A. O., and Akinkunmi, E. O.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) combined are used as choice topical treatment for fungal and bacterial infections but their delivery is affected by ointment vehicle, among other factors. With aim to achieve improved release and antimicrobial activity in ointment formulation of these medicaments through selection of more efficient vehicle(s), this study comparatively evaluated prospective alternatives to the compendium-specified base for delivery potential and relevant physical properties. Continue reading “Comparative evaluation of hydrophilic bases for improved delivery of Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid in antimicrobial ointment”