Materno-Fetal Haematological Relationship In Malaria At Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria

AAG Jimoh



This study is aimed to determine the effects of maternal and fetal parasitaemia on maternal and fetal haemoglobin. A nine-month (January – September 1997) prospective study was carried out at the labour unit of the Regional Hospital in Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. One hundred and twenty-four patients with singleton deliveries were studied. The prevalence rate of maternal and fetal parasitaemia were 102 (82.25%) and 33 (26.61%) respectively. The mean maternal haemoglobin was 10.11 + 1.35 gm/dl, those with parasitaemia 9.26+0.85 gm/dl and those without parasitaemia 11.45+1.20 gm/dl (p<0.005). There is a close correlation between maternal parasitaemia, worsening maternal haemoglobin level and fatal parasitaemia (p<0.005 df=3 95% CI). Fetal parasitaemia is significantly commoner in fetuses with severe anaemia compared to those with negative fatal parasitaemia (p<0.005). The author emphasized curative treatment of all pregnant women at the first antenatal care visit to be supplemented by adequate prophylaxis throughout pregnancy. Choice of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis must be guided by the local sensitivity patterns and safety profiles of the drugs to the mothers and the developing fetuses.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 217-220

Prevalence And Distribution Of Ruminant Trypanosomosis In Bokkos Local Government Area Of Plateau State, Nigeria

JO Kalajaiye, SO Omotainse, GA Omoogun



The seasonal prevalence of typanosomosis was investigated in Bokkos LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria. A total of 740 animals (684 cattle and 56 sheep) were bled during the dry and wet seasons. The standard methods used were simple random and jugular venipucture. Standard parasitological methods were used to determine the infection rate. In cattle, the findings showed an infection rate of 11.7% while in sheep it was 17.9%. Peak infection in animals was during the end of the rainy season and beginning of dry season (September-December). Complementary mice inoculation tests revealed 83 sub patent cases and are recommended as a confirmatory diagnostic technique.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 221-224

Changes In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of Onchocerciasis Patients Treated With Ivermectin

OU Manafa, MA Mafe, ET Idowu, MB Ajayi



This study evaluated the peripheral leukocyte count and the presence of microfilariae in the body fluids of onchocerciasis patients treated with ivermectin. Fifty-three patients over the age 10 years were selected from Ipogun, an onchocerciasis endemic area in Ondo State, Nigeria. Before and after treatment, all patients received a parasitologic and clinical examination that included physical examination, palpation of onchocercal nodules, assessment of microfilarial densities in iliac crest skin snips, diagnosis of concomitant parasitic infections in stool specimens and total leukocytes differential counts. Results indicated that ivermectin did not induce a decrease in the total number of peripheral leukocytes but there was a decrease in the number of eosinophils. Microfilariae were not found in increase frequency in the urine, blood and sputum, while the number of microfilariae per mg of skin snip decreased.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 225-230

Epidemiological Mapping Of Lymphatic Filariasis In Southern Nigeria Preliminary Survey Of Akinyele Local Government Area

TS Awolola, OU Manafa, ET Idowu, JA Adedoyin, AK Adeneye



Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries including Nigeria. The real burden of the disease in most endemic regions remains unknown. The nocturnal periodicity of the parasites requires parasitological examination to be done at night and this is quite cumbersome. The World Health Organization recently recommended two rapid methods for the assessment of lymphatic filariasis (RAGFIL). These RAGFILS methods i.e. using community health workers and key informants were used to rapidly map lymphatic filariasis in Akinyele Local Government area of Oyo State Nigeria. The prevalence of hydrocele and elephantiasis was highly sensitive in identifying this community as endemic for filariasis. The degree of association between finding by health workers and information obtained form the community key informants was high for the two major clinical manifestation of the disease used. Community key informants and health workers did provide useful information on the prevalence of clinical filariasis. These observations suggest that the mean number of cases obtained in the village through key informants and the examination of health workers for the clinical signs of the disease may be considered at an initial level to identify endemic areas. The need to extend this method to rapidly map lymphatic filariasis in Nigeria is discussed.

Key words: Lymphatic, Filariasis, Rapid, Mapping, Assessment and Health workers.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 231-234

Knowledge, Attitude And Perceptions Of Onchocerciasis In A Hyper-Endemic Community Of Edo State, Nigeria

VA Wagbatsoma, MSO Aisien



An evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and perception of Ekpan, a rural community in Edo State of Nigeria, towards onchocerciasis after 3 years of ivermectin distribution was undertaken. The structured questionnaire administered to the respondents focused on specific aspects of knowledge, attitude and perception related to the disease, its mode of transmission and control activities in the village. Results from the survey showed that 133 (68.6%) had fair knowledge of the disease. All subjects knew the bite of the blackflies was followed by itching but none knew that bites were accompanied by Onchocerca volvulus transmission. Level of education influenced knowledge of the disease and the relationship was statistically significant (P<0.05). Knowledge of the clinical manifestation was however poor. Majority of the respondents (83.0%) perceived the disease to be due to other causes other than Onchocerca volvulus. Knowledge of the side effects of ivermectin treatment was good while knowledge of those excluded from treatment was generally fair. Their attitude to ivermectin distribution was strongly influenced by adverse reactions to the drug, leading either to outright rejection or discontinuation of the treatment after initial acceptance. The most prevalent reactions were swelling of leg/feet (22.2%), followed by itching (17.5%) and weakness (9.8%). The respondents perceived the different clinical manifestation of onchocerciasis to be specific disease entities. Onchocercal nodules were believed to be blood clots; leopard skin was thought to be healed scars of wounds and cuts accidentally acquired in the course of farming while hanging groin was regarded as hernia. In conclusion, ignorance of the cause of the disease negatively influenced their attitude and perception. Therefore, for maximum impact on morbidity and transmission to be achieved with ivermectin treatment, knowledge of the disease and control activities should be imparted to the residents. Such health education should of necessity take into consideration community attitude and culture, which promote health-seeking behaviour.

Key Words: Knowledge, attitudes, perception, onchocerciasis, ivermectin

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 235-241

The Use Of Immunochromatographic Technique (ICT) In The Diagnosis Of Malaria In Ilorin, Nigeria

MS Odimayo, AA Akande, SS Taiwo, QB Omotesho



Malaria is a major global health problem with about 2.4 billion people at risk. It is the commonest cause of outpatient consultations and one of the leading causes of paediatrics medical admission. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is the key to effective disease management and one of the main interventions of the global malaria strategy. We assess the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of immunochromatographic technique (ICT) with the aim of assessing its relevance to the diagnosis of malaria in the North Central part of Nigeria. The study population, which comprised of 39 subjects aged 1 to 49 years, was sent to the hospital laboratory after clinical assessment. Thirty-five (89.7%) of the 39 subjects with fever had parasite count by thick blood film (TBF) ranging from 60-7,200 parasites/µL of blood. Twenty-five of these were positive by the dipstick technique giving a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for the ICT of 71.4%, 100%, 100%, 28.5% and 74.3% respectively when compared with the TBF. All four (4) subjects that were negative microscopically also tested negative with the ICT kit. We therefore conclude that ICT kits is a good alternative in diagnosis of malaria especially in adult in an endemic environment, because it is fast, requires simple manpower and no need of heavy equipment, However, before antigen tests can replace the thick and thin film, it should cover and differentiate between all Plasmodia species and detect lower level of parasitaemia.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 242-246

Investigation Of An Epidemic Of Meningitis In Baruten Local Government Area Of Kwara State, Nigeria

TM Akande, JO Monehin



This is a report of an investigation into an outbreak of meningitis in three communities of Baruten Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 41 cases of cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) were reported. There was a preponderance of males (78%). Thirty-eight (92.7%) did not receive CSF vaccine while the remaining 3 (7.3%) that receive the vaccine were vaccinated less than a week before the onset of illness. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 7.3%. About half (46.3%) of the cases were aged between 6-15 years. The outbreak could have been prevented if adequate supplies of CSM vaccine were provided and vaccination conducted early enough. Government policy of mass immunization against meningitis in November of every year should be implemented and properly monitored to prevent future outbreaks of meningitis and its resultant morbidity and mortality.
Key Words: Cerebrospinal meningitis, Outbreak, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 247-251
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A Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Pregnancy In Ile – Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

AO Aboderin, AK Ako-Nai, SB Zailani, A Ajayi, AN Adedosu



Asymptomatic bacteriuria presents a considerable risk to the mother and may lead to onset of acute pyelonephritis in about 5% of pregnant women and also increase the risk of fetal mortality. Apart from one previous study, no other study has been carried out in this environment hence our study. The objectives are to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst pregnant women in the three trimesters of pregnancy, to isolate and characterize the bacteria agents involved in this condition and recommend methods of reducing incidence and possible attendant sequalae. A descriptive study with purposive sampling carried out at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife Southwestern Nigeria between May 2000 and April 2001 examined two hundred and one consecutive pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. This included women in the three trimesters of pregnancy. Those with urinary tract infections were excluded. Each subject was given a sterile universal bottle and requested to collect midstream urine. Each sample was plated onto Cystein-Lactose-Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED) medium and chocolate agar (CA). The major bacterial colonies were isolated and characterized employing standard bacteriologic methods. The prevalence rate was 26%. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant (43.8%), of which 68.8% were beta-lactamase producers. Forty six point six percent of total isolates were Gram-negative rods; Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.8%), Escherichia coli (4.5%), Citrobacter freundii(4.5%) and others. The study recorded a relatively high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. While the bacterial isolates were multi-resistant to drugs traditionally employed to treat uropathogens, they were relatively sensitive to nitrofuratoin in vitro. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, we recommend routine screening for this condition in all antenatal clinics in this environment to reduce the incidence and probable attendant sequalae.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 252-259

Vibrio Cholerae 01 Infections In Jos, Nigeria

SA Opajobi, YT Kandakai-Olukemi, JD Mawak, MA Olukemi, CSS Bello



A study to determine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae 01 in stool sample submitted for routine examination of enteric pathogens, as well as identify the serotypes and antibiogram of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics was undertaken. The survey involved the examination of 774 (763 stool and 11 rectal swabs) specimens obtained from different patients seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). Of the total number examined, 34 (4.39%) yielded Vibrio cholerae 01. All of them were Inaba serotype of El-Tor biotype. The age group 20-29 years had the highest rate, 21 (6.95%). Rectal swabs yielded a higher number of isolates, 9 (81.82%) from 11 specimens compared to 25 (3.28%) from 763 stool specimens. The organism is most prevalent during the mid-rainy season (June/July) since most of the isolates 29 (85.29%) of the 34 isolates were isolated during this period (P < 0.05). Isolates were very sensitive to ofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline but resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. This study demonstrates that Vibrio cholerae 01 is endemic in our environment.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 260-264

Effect Of Essential Leaf Oil Of Ocimum Gratissimum On Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

BA Iwalokun, IG Owuh, SA Ronke



Ocimum gratissimum leaf oil, which has been reported to possess in vitro and in vivo efficacy against enteric bacteria was tested against forty six clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Lagos, Nigeria. The effect of the essential oil (EO) on pyocyanin production among these strains was also investigated. Agar well diffusion assay revealed susceptibility in 40 (87%) of the 46 tested strains with inhibition zone diameter (20-36 mm) comparable with the effect of tobramycin. Of the 40 susceptible isolates, 34 strains were quantitatively demonstrated to show susceptibility when further tested with the essential oil in broth and on agar yielding MIC and MBC values of 36 – 54 mg/ml and 42 – 66 mg/ml respectively. The values were higher than the 12 mg/ml (MIC) and 24 mg/ml (MBC) observed in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Compared with the control, the essential oil was found to reduce pyocyanin production significantly (p < 0.01) at 15 mg/ml (30.1 – 30.5 vs 259.2 – 276. 7 μg/ml) and 75 mg/ml (2.5 – 3.5 vs. 259.2 – 276.7 μg/ml) in both sensitive and resistant strains, suggesting that Ocimum gratissimum leaf oil may inhibit expression of virulence factors and progression of Pseudomonas infections caused by the tested strains.

Key Words: Ocimum gratissimum leaf oil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nigeria

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 265-271