Evaluation of measles vaccine cold chain in Lagos State, Nigeria

A O Oyefolu, A C Nwaeke, R A Audu, K O Akinyemi, O B Salu, C P Muller, S A Omilabu



The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and maintained. This was also reflected in the potency of the vaccines. However, many vaccines at L1 were within weeks from expiration. Considerable problems with refrigeration and delayed forwarding became apparent at level L3 causing loss in potency both at L3 and L4: although, all L4 stores check-listed met all the EPI/NPI accreditation criteria, ¾ of the vaccines were sub-potent and this situation did not improve over the three year study period (1996-98). Time to expiration did not seem to be the main cause of loss of potency but rather poor and delayed handling. It is recommended that vaccines are moved more rapidly through the system and used well before expiration. Because of frequent power failures despite standby generators, we further recommend to include in the WHO criteria, book-keeping of periods of power failures, running time of generators and a complete recording of fuel consumption. Attitudes among vaccinating staff and handling of vaccines should also be improved by continued training.

Keywords: Measles vaccine; cold stores; potency

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 1-7

Biochemical basis of heavy metal induced stress tolerance in the N2 fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum

P Sultan, S M Shah, P Williams, A Jan, N Ahmad



The effect of heavy metals (Cd and Cu) on the nitrogen fixing cyanbacterium, Anabaena doliolum was observed in the present study. To explore the survival strategy of the test cyanobacterium, Chl/CAR content, protein content, antioxidative defense system ( SOD, APX and GR) as well as biochemical fractionation (carbohydrates, lipids, protein, DNA and RNA) were studied. Increasing concentrations of metals inhibited the growth and survival significantly; chlorophyll and carotenoid content were found inhibited with increase in concentration of metals. Among the antioxidative enzymes, SOD and APX were increased with the increase in concentration of both the metals, whereas Catalase and Glutathione reductase were decreased at higher dose of Cd and Cu. APX played a major role for scavenging H2O2 rather than CAT. Results revealed decrease in all parameters with the duration of time. The role of metal induced PC in offering tolerance to UV-B was confirmed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system of the cyanobacterium treated with Cd and UV-B as well as in the Cd pretreated cells of A.dolium exposed to UV-B. Lipid peroxidation (measured in terms of MDA content) as well as SOD and APX were found to be less induced, thus showing less oxidative damage incase of interactive treatment when applied separately. However, CAT and GR which showed sensitivity at higher dose of both the stresses were found to be induced. Thus Cd appears to antagonize the effect of UV-B in test cyanobacterium. To know the actual reason for the antagonism, PC concentration was measured in the cells with and without BSO (a potent inhibitor of phytochelatin synthase) pretreatment. The results emphasized that the extent of antagonism was reverted in the BSO pretreated cells than the normal BSO non- treated cells. Nevertheless, the PC content was found to be more in case of Cd + UV-B than the individually treated cells, but the PC was more or less completely inhibited after BSO pretreatment in all the cases. The above finding was also visualized on the SDS-PAGE. Therefore this study showed that Cd induced PC has role in UV-B tolerance.
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 8-22

The role of genital chlamydial infection in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

O K Obunge, C T John



The polymicrobial nature of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) underscores the need for a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis and etiology of PID especially among core groups most at risk. This study was designed to determine the role of specific microbial infections in leading to PID among women. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection and other reproductive tract infections were determined in 100 women presenting at a health facility at Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The result showed that 11.1 per cent of women with acute PID were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis as compared to 4.3 per cent in the control group (odds ratio 2.75: 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-11.7). Neiserria gonorrhoeae was not detected in either of the two groups. Trichomoniasis (10% in PID cases and no case in control group) and bacterial vaginosis (17.5% and 4.3% in PID and control group respectively: Odds ratio 4.7, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1) were also significantly associated with the clinical picture suggestive of acute PID. It is recommended that where resources are limited, patients presenting with acute PID be treated empirically for Chlamydia trachomatis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and gonorrhoea.

Keywords: : Pelvic inflammatory disease, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neiserria gonorrhoeae, Bacteria vaginosis, Trichomoniasis

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 23-27

An out-break and observations on Trypanosomiasis in Fresian cattle at Sabon-birni, Kaduna State of Nigeria

A O Fajinmi, J N Abenga, F A Lawani, J C Ukah, E C Ikemereh, P U Nwabuko



Bovine trypanosomiasis has clinical features characterized by anorexia, emaciation, anemia and the prognosis is usually guided culminating in death. An out-break of trypanopsomiasis was reported and subsequently investigated in Batagarawa farms, Sabon-birni, Rigachukwu LGA Kaduna State of Nigeria. Clinical observations were made on parameters including appearance, temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, color of conjunctiva and lachrymal secretions. Record of pre and post treatment indices were also taken.

Trypanosoma congolense was isolated from five (5) Friesian cattle out of forty (40) Friesian cattle sampled representing 12.5%. Several workers had reported the occurrence of trypanosomiasis in cattle and goats. The present study deals with the observations on naturally occurring trypanosomiasis in Friesian cattle.

Haematological examinations were performed employing routing procedures. Biochemical activities and parameters were determined by standard calorimetric method using blood chemistry analyzer. Animals were treated with start doses of Berenil (3.5mg/kg body weight) intramuscularly.

Trypanosomiasis has been recognized as a disease of great economic importance as it generally causes heavy production losses by reduction in milk and other protein yields. There is emaciation in sub-acute and chronic conditions, low working capacity and high mortality in acute cases. This study confirmed that trypanosomiasis is a threat to introduction of exotic breeds of cattle into Nigeria.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 35-38

Endometrial Tuberculosis i ninfertility: Report of 2 cases and a review of the literature

B A Ojo, L I Akanbi, S O Samuel, M S Odimayo, O A Adesiyun



Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous disease affecting human and many other mammals. Most human diseases are caused by M.tuberculosis but some are due to M.bovis.(1).
Tuberculosis of the tubes and endometrium is intimately bound to the problem of sterility. Despite the decline in frequency of genital tuberculosis in industrialized world coupled with widespread use of antibiotics worldwide, it still remain a possible cause of female infertility especially in developing world.(2)
It was the commonest diagnosis among infertile population in India (3), Malaysia (4) and Saudi Arabia (5). Nigeria, U.S.A., and Pakistan have reported a low and infrequent findings (6,7,8).
Endometrial tuberculosis seems to occur when the ovaries and uterus are in a state of activity (9) and it derives its significance as a clinical entity because of its tendency in focusing on those in these reproductive age group.
Tuberculosis of the genital tract gives rise to few symptoms especially in its mild or moderate phase, its discovery is usually made unexpectedly but will render a large percentage of infected women sterile unless detected and treated adequately in its earliest phases. The cases presented below is to highlight its clinical presentation and to serve as a reminder that pelvic tuberculosis still exist and will not disappear unless tuberculosis is completely eradicated.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 35-39

Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome (AIDS) of a Nigerian rural community: Implication for prevention and policy initiative

G T Jombo, D Z Egah, J T Akosu, E W Mbaawuaga



Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has assumed a disease of epidemic dimension both in Nigeria’s rural and urban communities. Different people have varying knowledge and beliefs about this disease. This study was designed to assess the beliefs and perceptions of the people of Ihugh community in that regard.
A structured questionnaire was interviewer administered to assess their beliefs and perceptions about AIDS, results were analyzed by simple descriptive methods.
Of the 500 respondents, 65%(n=325) believed that AIDS is found only in cities while 69.7%(n=345) were of the opinion that AIDS can be cured by traditional means. Sixty five percent (n=326) believed that some people are destined for AIDS while 75.8%(n=482) were of the opinion that AIDS can be acquired through witches and wizards; 71.1%(n=488) believed AIDS can be acquired through curses. A large number of the respondents (63.0%) claimed they did not know where to go for routine HIV screening.
Conclusion: Health education program should be designed for the people of Ihugh community in the context of their peculiarities. This should include town cry, health talk at their worship centres and local gatherings. The electronic and print media are not the best based on their peculiarities.

Keywords: Beliefs; Perceptions; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 40-48

Human intestinal parasitism in a rural settlement of northern Nigeria, a survey

G T Jombo, D Z Egah, J T Akosu, E W Mbaawuaga



Intestinal parasites are still a common feature among our communities. This study was set out to ascertain this. One hundred and fifty respondents were recruited into the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to the respondents with specific hygienic components such as: sources of drinking water, methods of sewage disposal and water purification among others. Stool samples were collected and analysed microscopically and findings analysed.
The overall prevalence of intestinal parssites in Mbangough community was 62%(96 out of 150). The commonest parasite encountered was Ascaris lumbricoides (44%), followed
by Enterobius vermicularis (14%) and Entamoeba histolytica (11.3%). Other parasites were Entamoeba coli 3.3%, Hookworm 6.0%, Schistosoma mansoni 1.3%, Taenia species 7.3%, while the least common parasite encountered was Strongyloides stercoralis 0.6%.. None of the respondents had access to pipe borne water or bore hole.
The prevalence of intestinal parasites in Mbangough community is still quite high. Government should invigorate in her pursuit towards the provision of primary health care facilities in our communities Also health education should be made a compulsory course in all primary schools as well as all adult and literacy classes

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 48-88

Isolaton of Aeromanas species from children with and without diarrhoea in Jos, Nigeria

Y T Kandakai-Olukemi, J D Mawak, I J Akosu, M A Olukemi



An investigation on the prevalence and antibiogram of Aeromonas species among children in Jos was conducted. The samples analysed included a total of 104 (52 diarrhoeal and 52 non – diarrhoea) stool samples collected from Vom Christian and Plateau Specialists Hospital in Jos. Aeromonas isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests. Of the total number examined, 6 (5.7%) were positive for Aeromonas species, 2 (3.9%) from diarrhoeal and 4 (7.7%) from non diarrhoeal samples
(P>0.05). All isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophilia. The highest number of isolates 3 (10.7%) were recovered from the group 7-12 months. No isolates were recovered from exclusively breast fed children while the highest number 4 (9.8%) was found in children fed with breast milk and formula. The isolates were found to be very sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but resistant to penicillin.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 55-67

Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and standard antibiotics.

O E Adeleke, O P Ojo, P A Idowu



The methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and eight standard antibiotics were tested in-vitro for comparative activity against 10 isolates of each of six bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, all from throat infections.
The methanolic extract exerted activity against all the bacteria tested almost in similar manner as gentamicin. Of the remaining seven standard antibiotics, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and tetracycline showed activity against one organism or the other. Remarkably, augmentinR, cloxacillin and cotrimoxazole had no activity against any of the bacterial isolates. Amoxycillin was able to affect only 2 of the 8 isolates of Esch. coli. This has lent credence to the ethnopharmaceutical claims of the curative affect of raw-chewed Garcinia kola seeds on throat infections as well as highlighting the bacterial resistance to standard antibiotics, particularly, the β-lactams.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 68-76

Soil transmitted helmeinthiasis among apparently healthy children in Kano municipality

G U Ihesiulor, M A Emokpae, S I Adeeke, A B Samaila



The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth infections in apparently healthy children of mean age 12.2 years drawn randomly from one school in each of the four local government areas of Kano, northern Nigeria were evaluated. Stool sample from 570 children were analyzed using formol ether concentration technique. 130(22.8%) of the subject were infected by soil transmitted helminthes (STH). The overall prevalence by species were Ascaris Lumbricoides (7.9%), Hookworm (5.3%) and trichuris trichiura (3.5%) respectively. 35(6.1%) of the subjects were infected with two or more soil
transmitted helminthes. The prevalence in males (24.2%) was generally higher than that of females (22%), Hookworm infection was high(45.5%) in the 15-20 years old age group, while Ascaris Lumbricoides infection was high (100%) in the 6-10 years old age group. The mean number of eggs per gramme (epg) of faeces was moderate. The study shows that subjects had high intensity of infections for Ascaris Lumbricoidesas hook worm, trichuris
trichiura as epg of faeces counted were high in them compared to what was obtained for mixed infections. It also reveals a moderately high prevalence across board for all soil transmitted helminth (STH) in Ungogo local government

Keywords: Soil transmitted helminthes, Children, prevalence

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp.77-83