Polymerase chain reaction versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among gynaecological patients in southwestern Nigeria

T.A. Ajani, C.G. Anaedobe, T.A. Oluwasola, M.A. Ajani, S.A. Fayemiwo, R.A. Bakare

 

Abstract

Background:  Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), is the most common bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infection, a major cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and female infertility. Since C. trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic with higher prevalence in developing countries, highly sensitive and affordable methods are desirable for routine screening and diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of C. trachomatis-specific IgG antibody by ELISA as a screening tool for C. trachomatis infection, by comparing the performance of ELISA with the gold standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Method: In this cross sectional study, we enrolled 150 women attending infertility clinic at Ibadan between January and November, 2015. ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies specific to C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was performed on the blood samples using third generation indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and endocervical samples were analyzed for presence of C. trachomatisnucleic acid using PCR. Socio-demographic bio-data and gynaecological history were obtained with questionnaire; data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Overall, 58 (38.7%) were positive for C. trachomatis specific IgG antibody by ELISA and 11 (7.3%) for C. trachomatis nucleic acid by PCR. Using PCR as the gold standard, ELISA had a sensitivity of 81.8% specificity of 64.8%, positive predictive value of 15.5% negative predictive value of 97.8% and accuracy of 66%.

Conclusion: The high sensitivity of the ELISA indicates that over 80% of patients identified as being positive in the screened population are truly infected. Also, the negative predictive value approaches 100% amongst those screened out as being
negative. Thus its use as a screening tool for C. trachomatis infection is warranted particularly in developing countries where cheaper and easier to use alternatives to PCR are in dire need.

Keywords: C. trachomatis, infertility, polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, sexually transmitted infections

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Polymerase chain reaction versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among gynaecological patients in southwest

In-vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Diospyros monbuttensis

O.O. Ayepola, G.I. Olasehinde, O.A. Adedeji, O.O. Adeyemi, O.A. Onile-Ere

 

Abstract

Diospyros species in folklore medicine are used as anti-inflammatory,  antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral agents. The in vitroantimicrobial activity of crude extracts of the leaves of Diospyros monbuttensis were evaluated against three bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus ) and fungal strain (Aspergillus niger). Extraction was carried out using both polar and non-polar solvents (ethanol and water). The leaves were screened for phytochemical constituents and preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity carried out using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the agar well dilution method. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, glycosides and alkaloids in the plant. The ethanolic leaf extract of D. monbuttensis had no activity against the test organisms, but antimicrobial activity was observed for the aqueous extract against S. aureus and E. coli at all concentrations tested. The MIC of the aqueous extract of D. monbuttensis on S. aureus and E. coli was 0.78 mg/ml. The results of this study indicate that Diospyros monbuttensis leaves may be used for treatment of infections caused by S. aureus and E. coli.

Keywords: Diospyros monbuttensis, Antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening

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In-vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Diospyros monbuttensis

Serum and sputum surfactants -A and -D in multidrug-resistant and drugsensitive tuberculosis patients

A.A. Onifade, V.F. Edem, O.G. Arinola

 

Abstract

Abnormal production and function of surfactants are associated with pulmonary diseases. Also, pulmonary infections alter surfactant metabolism. Due to lack of information on the levels of surfactants A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) in Nigerian tuberculosis (TB) patients, this study assessed these surfactants in both sputum and serum of drug sensitive- and multidrug resistant- TB patients using ELISA. The aim is to explore the diagnostic or therapeutic potential of SP-A and SP-D in TB patients. Also, to find out appropriate sample for the analyses of SP-A and SP-D in TB patients.

The mean serum levels of SP-A and SP-D were not significantly reduced in MDR-TB (n=30) and DS-TB patients (n=30) compared with non-TB apparently healthy controls (n=30) (p > 0.05). Mean sputum levels of SP-A and SP-D were significantly reduced in DS-TB patients compared with the levels in MDR-TB patients (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the sputum SP-D and SP-A levels but not serum SP-D and SP-A levels are useful indicators of the disease activity in pulmonary TB patients.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Surfactants, Diagnosis, Nigeria

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Serum and sputum surfactants -A and -D in multidrug-resistant and drugsensitive tuberculosis patients