Association of cytomegalo virus with type I diabetes mellitus among children in Minia Governorate

BaA Alia, WKM Mahdi

 

Abstract

Background: Type I diabetes (T1D) is the most common form of diabetes in most parts of the world.

Aim: The association between cytomegalovirus (CMV)and T1D mellitus was studied, with comparison to healthy subjects and to correlate its level with different clinical and laboratory parameters.
Materials & Methods: This study included 68 children and adolescents who were classified into two groups. GroupI comprised 53 patients diagnosed with T1D and having regular follow up in the pediatric endocrinology out-patient clinic, Minia University children’s hospital. Group II comprised 15 apparently healthy subjects, age and sex matched to the diseased group. According to the onset of diabetes, we divided the diabetic group into two sub-groups. Group Ia (newly diagnosed) comprised 20 patients, with ages ranging between 7 and 18 years; 10 were males (50 %), and 10 were females (50 %). Whilst group Ib (duration of disease >1 year) comprised 33 patients, with ages ranging between 6 and 17 years; 17 were males (49%) and 18 were females (51%). The studied groups were subjected to the following: thorough history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations (random blood glucose levels) and HbA1c%. DNA was extracted using QIAamp Min elute kit protocol for detection of cytomegalo virus by RTRCR.
Results:The frequency of cytomegalovirus was significantly higher in T1D children than the control and in group Ia than group Ib.
Conclusion: T1D children had significantly higher serum cytomegalovirus than the control group, as did those newly diagnosed compared to those with longer duration of illness.

Keywords:T1D, Cytomegalo-virus, Haemoglobin A1C, Polymerase chain reaction Key Messages: Dose of insulin, significant +ve correlations, RT-PCR

 

ASSOCIATION DU CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AVEC DIABETE SUCRE DE TYPE 1 CHEZ LES ENFANTS DANS LE GOUVERNORAT DE MINIA.

 

Contexte : Diabète de type 1(DT1) est la forme la plus courante du diabète dans la plupart des régions du monde.
But : L’association entre le cytomégalovirus et DT1 sucre a été étudiée avec une comparaison aux sujets sains et pour corréler son niveau avec les divers paramètres cliniques et laboratoires.
Matériaux et Méthodes : Cette étude a inclus 68 enfants et adolescents qui ont été classés en deux groupes. Le Groupe I a compris 53 patients diagnostiqués avec DT1 et ayant suivi régulier dans la clinique endocrinologie pédiatrique ambulatoire, l’Université hôpital d’enfants de Minia. Le Groupe II a compris 15 sujets apparemment sains, l’age et le sexe adapté au groupe malade. Selon l’attaque du diabète, nous avons divisé le groupe diabétique en deux sous – groupes. Le Groupe Ia (nouvellement diagnostiqué), a compris 20 patients, dont l’âge est compris entre 7 et 18 ans ; 10 étaient males (50%), et 10 étaient femelles (50%). Alors que le Groupe Ib (la durée de malade >1 ans) comprenait 33 patients ; 17 étaient males (49%), et 18 étaient femelles (51%). Les groupes étudiés ont été soumis a la suivante : grâce a la
prise de l’histoire, examen clinique et examen de laboratoire (nouveau de glycémie aléatoire) et HbA1c%. L’ADN a été extrait en utilisant QIAamp Min elute protocole du kit pour le dépistage du cytomégalovirus par RT – RCR.
Résultats : La fréquence du cytomégalovirus était considérablement plus élevée dans les enfants DT1 que le contrôlé et dans le Groupe Ia que le Groupe Ib.
Conclusion : Les enfants DT1 ont eu sérum cytomégalovirus plus élevé que le groupe contrôlé, comme ceux nouvellement diagnostiqués par rapport a ceux qui ont une plus longue durée de la malade.

Mots Clés : DT1, Cytomégalovirus, Hémoglobine A1C, la réaction en chaine de la Polymérase.
Messages Clés : Dose d’insuline, Significative +ve corrélations, RT – PCR.

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Association of cytomegalo virus with type I diabetes mellitus among children in Minia Governorate

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among HIV counseling and testing clients in Jos, North central Nigeria

YJ Peter, AT Olayinka, OO Agbaji, FT Ogunsola

 

Abstract

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). We set out to determine the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infection among HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) clients at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Nigeria.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the HCT unit of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, Nigeria between November, 2012 and April 2013.
Subjects were recruited consecutively at the HCT unit of APIN JUTH. Included were subjects 18 years of age and above, antiretroviral (ARV) drug naive, who accepted and signed the consent form.Clients who declined to sign the consent form were excluded. The study involved collecting demographic data, exposure to risk factors and laboratory determination of HBV and HCV sero-prevalence in the subjects using Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay methods.
Chi-squared test was used to determine significance of association between categorical variables.
One hundred and thirty two (56.9%) were females, 100 (43.1%) were males. Thirty six (15.5%) tested positive for HBsAg by ELISA, 31 (13.4%) were confirmed positive by DNA PCR. Nine (3.9%) tested positive by ELISA to HCV antibody, 7 (3.0%) were confirmed positive by RNA PCR. Co-infection rate of HIV / HBV was 5.2%. Infection was more common among those younger than 36 years in the case of HBV and those older than 36 years in the case of HCV.We concluded the prevalence of HBV infection was high. Study was limited by the cross sectional design.

Burden of intestinal parasites amongst HIV/AIDS patients attending Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon

MEA Bissong, NF Nguemain, TEN Ng’awono, FHL Kamga

 

Abstract

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections cause severe diarrhea especially in debilitated subjects with clinical complications of dehydration, malabsorption and severe weight loss, complicating treatment schemes.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital based study during which data were collected by the use of questionnaires and laboratory tests of stool and blood samples respectively.
Results: A total of 200 volunteer patients participated in this study of which 132 (66.0%) were females and 68 (34.0%) males. Eight different intestinal parasites were identified in 69 (34.5%) participants. The most prevalent parasite was Entamoeba histolytica with 8.0% of infected cases. Opportunistic parasites were identified in 15.5% of the study population. Seven percent of patients were infected with  Cryptosporidium parvum, 6.5% with Isospora belli, and 2% with Microsporidium species. Diarrhea was found in 38.5% of the study participants 62.3% of whom had at least a single intestinal parasite. Opportunistic parasites were significantly more prevalent in patients with diarrhea and participants with CD4+ T cell counts less than 200 cells/al (P < 0.05). Diarrhea was significantly more prevalent in
participants who were on antiretroviral drugs than in those who were not (66.5% vs. 33.5%, P<0.05).
Conclusion: Though opportunistic parasites were found in the majority of HIV/AIDS patients attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites represented a common burden. It was therefore recommended appropriate diagnosis before initiating the routine treatment which is usually practiced in our health settings.

Key words: Intestinal parasites, HIV/AIDS patients, Bamenda Regional Hospital

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Burden of intestinal parasites amongst HIVAIDS patients attending Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon