Fulminating lymphogranuloma venerum in an HIV-positive middle aged patent mascurading as soft tissue sarcoma

I A Adigun, A Fadeyi, B Adegboro



This is a case report of a 40-year old male patient presenting with a 17-month history of right inguinal/growing swellings. Initial clinical assessment was suggestive of soft tissue sarcoma, and he was admitted in the surgical ward. Histopathology investigation suggested an inflammatory process was taking place. Assessment for Chlamydia IgG with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorhent Assay (ELISA) using Immunocomb (Organics, Israel) gave a positive titre of 1 in 32. HIV serology using p24 ELISA and Western Blotting gave positive results.
He made significant progress after two weeks on antibiotics and antiretroviral (HAART) therapy.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 59-61

Lymphogranuloma venereum a review of literature

A Fadeyi, I A Adigun, B Adegboro



Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a systemic STD caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3. The disease is endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean but rare in Western countries where the disease occurs mainly in sporadic form. Large outbreaks occurred recently in Europe and America mostly among men who have sex with men (MSM). The clinical course of the disease is stratified into primary, secondary and late stages but the presentation may be atypical particularly when coexisting with HIV and may result in diagnostic confusion. We present here a review of literature on LGV.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 53-58

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Prions And Prion Diseases

R K Obi, F C Nwanebu



A prion is a small infectious particle, which resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affects the brain and nervous system of humans and animals and are transmitted by prions. Unlike other kinds of infectious diseases that are spread by microbes, the infectious agent in TSEs is a specific protein called prion protein (PrP). TSEs are unique diseases in that they can be inherited, occur spontaneously (sporadic TSE) or can be spread through infection. The clinical signs of the disease in humans vary, but commonly include personality changes, psychiatric problems such as depression, lack of coordination and/or an unsteady gait (ataxia). Patients also may experience involuntary jerking movements called myoclonus, unusual sensation, insomnia, and confusion or memory problems. In the later stages of the disease, patients may have severe mental impairment (dementia) and may lose the ability to move or speak. Well known prion diseases include scrapie (in sheep and goat), bovine spongiform encephapathy (BSE or mad cow disease) and Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (CJD). Less well known prion diseases include the transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) (in mink), chronic wasting disease (CWD) (in mule, deer and elk), feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) (in cats), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Alpers syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). Six of these affect humans: CJD, GSS, FFI, mad cow disease known as (new) variant CJD, (nvCJD), Alpers syndrome and kuru. These conditions form a spectrum of diseases with overlapping signs and symptoms. There is currently no treatment that can cure or control TSEs.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 38-52

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Prions And Prion Diseases


Pattern of HIV/AIDS infection in Irrua, a rural community in Nigeria

T A Salami, S O Samuel, Ojeh- Oziegbe, K C Eze



This study aims to observe the pattern of HIV infection in Irrua Hospital records of patients diagnosed and managed with HIV/AIDS between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrieved and subjected to statistical analysis. The results show that females have statistically significant lower age; more incidence of double infection with HIV1&2; and more clinical aneamia(low PCV values) compared to their male counterparts. Women are more likely to be HIV infected than men of similar ages for biological and cultural reasons. HIV also passes more easily from men to women than vice versa hence double infection is common. Anaemia is commoner in females because of incidence of marrow failure due to longer survival after HIV infection in women. Efforts should therefore be made to check the spread of this dreaded infection.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 33-37

Isolates from wound infections at federal medical centre, bida

E A Odedina, E A Eletta, R A Balogun, O Idowu



A total of 589 wound swabs from 334 patients in Federal Medical Centre, Bida were studied. Samples were collected between Jan 2002 to Dec. 2003. Swabs were plated within one hour after collection unto blood, chocolate and Mac Conkey after plate, and incubated aerobically for 24hrs. The chocolate plated swabs were incubated under increased carbon dioxide for 24hrs. Organism were identified using morphological and biochemical characteristics according to Cowon and Steel\’s manual for identification of medical bacterial. Organism isolated were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by disc diffusion using modified Kirby-Bauer method.
The number of swabs that were culture positives were 441 (74.9%). Out of these 441 samples 334 (75.7%) grew one organism each, 99 samples (22.4%) grew two organisms each while 8 samples (1.8%) grew three organisms each. The 3 commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (45.5%), Escherichia coli (21.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.9%) which together constitute 82.2% of the isolates.
There is a high level of antibiotic resistance. Ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for the gram positive bacteria with susceptibility of 68.3%. Ofloxacin is the drug of the choice for the gram negative bacteria with susceptibility of 76.3%

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 26-32

Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides against Alternaria solani.

S Phalisteen, S Ishaq, K Amardeep, J Arif, S Sami



Alternaria is a polyphagus fungus that occurs frequently on dead and decaying organic material and is responsible for causing leaf spot disease. In Indian subcontinent, there are different varieties of plants showing antimicrobial and other medicinal properties which can be employed in plant disease management to reduce the chemical load from the environment. The present investigation has been taken to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant (leaf) extracts and their combination with fungicides (Carbendazim) against radial growth of Alternaria solani.. The fungus was collected from infected leaf spots of potato plant and grown in PDA (potato dextrose agar) media. The water extracts of medicinal plants viz. Azadirachata indica (3%), Calotropis procera (3%), Nerium oleander (3%), Ocimum sanctum (3%) fungicide, carbendazim (1%) and their combinations were prepared. On the basis of results, the medicinal plant extracts Neem (3%), Nerium (3%) added with carbendazim (1%) showed maximum inhibition of fungus (Alternaria solani).

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 19-25

Sero-epidemiological evaluation of clonal diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among Neisseria meningitidis isolates from epidemic cases in Jigawa State, Nigeria

A Uwah, B Iwalokun, O Badaru, Y Gbadegesin



A total of 33 Neisseria culture-positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from apparently ill patients during a meningococcal outbreak in Jigawa State, Nigeria were subjected to serogroup, serotype identifications schemes using agglutination and dot blot techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the recovered Neisseria meningitidis isolates were also determined.
Seventeen (51.5%), 8 (24.2%), 3 (9.1%) and 5 (15.2%) of the Neisseria isolates belonged to A, B, C and W135 serogroups. Fifteen (N. meningitides A = 8; B = 2; C = 3; W135 = 3) were of serotype 2a, while 4 distinct serosubtypes: P1.5, 2 (57.6%), P1.9 (6.0%), P1.14 (6.0%) and P1.7, 1(15.2%) were found among 28 clones.
The proportions of serogroup A – associated cases, serotyppe 2a and serosubtype P.15, 2 were significant (P < 0.05) compared to other related parameters. While acquisition of meningococcal disease was neither age nor sex dependent (P > 0.05).
Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing further stratified the W135 isolates as members of the ET-37 complex. Five (15.2%), 6 (18.2%) and 7 (21.2%) of the 33 culture–positive isolates displayed resistance to ampicillin and chlorampehnicol and intermediate resistance to penicillin.
Resistance pattern characterization further revealed monoresistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethazole (TMP) by 20 isolates and multiresistance with equal predominance (2 each) of patterns: Pen AmpChlTMP, PenAmpTMP, AmpTMP covering all the serogroups.
Three of the five W135, 6 of 17 A and 1 of 8 C serogroups were β–lactamase positive, while enzyme expression was not observed among the B isolates.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 2-18

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