The role of infections in the pathogenesis of bleeding among patients with haemophilia-A: A primer for haemophilia caregivers in the tropics

*1Ahmed, S. G., and 2Ibrahim, U. A.

1Department of Haematology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

2Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348034418015

Abstract:

Background: Haemophiliacs are often transfusion-dependent, and are at risk of HIV and non-HIV immuno- suppression, making them vulnerable to transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) and non-TTIs, many of which can cause infection-associated bleeding (IAB) even in non-haemophilic individuals. Haemophiliacs are particularly susceptible to IAB due to vicious interaction between pre-existing ‘inherited’ FVIII deficiency and infection-induced ‘acquired’ pro-haemorrhagic abnormalities. IAB in haemophiliacs manifests as undue musculoskeletal and/or mucocutaneous haemorrhages. It is thus important for haemophilia caregivers in general (and in the tropics in particular) to have thorough understanding of IAB. Clinico-pathological perspectives of IAB in haemophilia are fragmented, and not comprehensively appraised in previous literature. This review presents updated, compre- hensive but concise overview of pathogenesis, trigger mechanisms, clinical implications, therapy and prevention of IAB in haemophiliacs as accrued from literature.

Methodology: Online databases such as PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and others were interrogated using the search terms; ‘haemophilia-A’, ‘viral, bacterial and parasitic infections’, ‘bleeding’, ‘mucocutaneous’, ‘thrombo- cytopenia’, ‘ecchymosis’, ‘purpura’, ‘haematuria’, ‘melena’, ‘haematemesis’, and ‘haemoptysis’ in various combina- tions. Continue reading “The role of infections in the pathogenesis of bleeding among patients with haemophilia-A: A primer for haemophilia caregivers in the tropics”

A review of the roles of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules in infections

*1Adegboro, B., 2Kolawole, O. M., 3Lawani, O., 2Folahan, F., and 2Seriki, A. A.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

2Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus is a group of genes located on the short arm of chromosome 6 in human that code for proteins on the cell surface. They have important roles in immune response by the cells of immune system. Using a comprehensive search method on Google Scholar and PubMed databases, literatures on MHC published in English until 2021 were searched with the terms; “MHC”, “HLA”, “MHC antigen presentation” and “MHC roles in infections”. Relevant publications were identified, screened for duplicates and selected per eligibility. The review highlights the different haplotypes of the MHC that either enhance or depress the body immune system to some important viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. The possibility of utilizing this knowledge in genetic engineering and immunomodulation, to prevent infectious diseases and cancers, are discussed. Continue reading “A review of the roles of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules in infections”

Evaluation of procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial sepsis in adult population in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria

*1,2Idakari, C. N., *2,3Efunshile, A. M., 4Akase, I. E., 1Osuagwu, C. S., 1Oshun, P.,
and 1Oduyebo, O. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University
Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University
Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected] and [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Prompt antibiotic treatment of sepsis improves the outcome, but dependence on clinical diagnosis for empiric therapy leads to overuse of antibiotics which in turn promotes the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Blood culture takes time and molecular diagnosis may not be available or affordable. The use of procalcitonin (PCT) as a biomarker to guide antibiotic therapy in adults is less established compared to children. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the usefulness of PCT as a biomarker to aid early commencement of antibiotics among adult patients with sepsis in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria.

Methodology: Three hundred patients with clinical diagnosis of sepsis made by the managing physicians were recruited for the study. Criteria used for clinical diagnosis of sepsis include tachycardia, tachypnea, fever or
hypothermia and presence of leukocytosis, bandemia or leucopenia. The patients were selected using systematic consecutive sampling methods. A sepsis work-up including quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA),
white blood cell count (WCC), aerobic blood culture and estimation of serum PCT levels were done for all the participants. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 25.0.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values, accuracy and likelihood ratio of PCT against blood culture, WCC and qSOFA score were determined. Association between variables was measured using Fisher exact
test (with Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval). P-value ˂0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Evaluation of procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial sepsis in adult population in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria”

Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants; Xylopia aethiopica, Gliricidia sepium and Ocimum gratissimum used in Cote d’Ivoire

*1Bouagnon, J. J. R., 2Bolou, G. E. K., 3Guédé, K. B., 4Sanga, D., 4Koffi, L. R., 4N’Guessan, C. D. R., 5Konan, Y., 5Adjogoua, E. V., 4N’Guessan, J. D.,
4Djaman, A. J., and 1,3Dosso, M.

1Biological Resources Center/Biobank, Institut Pasteur, Côte d’Ivoire

2National Floristic Center, Felix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire

3Department of Bacteriology-Virology, Institut Pasteur, Côte d’Ivoire

4Laboratory of Biology and Health, UFR Biosciences, Felix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire

5Department of epidemic viruses, Institut Pasteur, Côte d’Ivoire
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: The present work is part of the exploration of new antiviral molecules to combat antimicrobial resistance. In purpose, this study determined the phytochemical analysis, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of extracts from three Ivorian medicinal plants; Gliricidia sepium, Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica against poliovirus 1, a non-enveloped RNA virus.

Methodology: Aqueous extract of the three plants, which were identified at the herbarium of National Floristic Center Abidjan, was done using a previously described method. The precipitation or staining technique was used to highlight the chemical groups in the three extracts while the polyphenol content of each extract was assessed by the colorimetric method. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity tests were performed in 96-well plates. Cytotoxicity of each extract on L20B (a genetically engineered mouse cell line) was determined by observation of the cell line carpet. Antiviral activity of three extracts against poliovirus type I was determined after 72 hours using an assay that measures inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture. Continue reading “Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants; Xylopia aethiopica, Gliricidia sepium and Ocimum gratissimum used in Cote d’Ivoire”

Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital, southwest Nigeria

*1Adeyemo, A. T., 2Adeyemo, A. T., 3Odetoyin, B. W., and 2,3Onipede, A. O.
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Uniosun Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals
Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2347031287078

Abstract:
Background: Clinical infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria constitute great burden to healthcare delivery with these resistant pathogens contributing largely to the magnitude and spread of antimicrobial resistance globally. Hence, knowledge of the risk factors for acquisition of infection caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is crucial to instituting prompt and appropriate treatment as well as prevention and control measures. This study investigated the risk factors associated with the prevalence of ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections among hospitalized patients in Uniosun Teaching Hospital (UTH), Osogbo, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 359 hospitalized patients with clinical infections from whose clinical samples we isolated non-duplicate GNB were consecutively recruited. GNB were isolated following aerobic cultures of
appropriate clinical samples and MicrobactTMGNB 24E kit was used for species identification. All isolates were screened for ESBL production by the combination disc method. Relevant clinical and demographic information
was obtained using a designed data collection form, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated risk factors. Continue reading “Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamaseproducing Gram-negative bacterial infections in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital, southwest Nigeria”

Baseline health facility assessment of quality assurance for malaria diagnosis in existing government hospital laboratories in Sokoto State, Nigeria

*1Ogboi, J. S., 2Ume, I., 2Mohammed, Z., 2Usman, A., 2Bashaar, A., 3Okoro, C., and 2Lawal, L.

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria

2IHP, Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Quality laboratory services are needed to direct reasonable malaria case management through malaria
microscopy and rapid diagnostic test. This study assessed the existing diagnostic capacities including laboratory
structures and systems, human resource, skills and competences, using the standardized WHO/NMEP EQA
assessment tool.

Methodology: Data were collected by an assessment team using a standardized assessment instrument/checklist
drawn from WHO/NMEP assessment tool and analyzed with Open Data Kit (ODK) and Open-source suite of tools on
Android mobile devices from September 3-11, 2020. The use of ODK allowed data to be collated offline where internet
services were poor or unavailable and uploaded thereafter. Continue reading “Baseline health facility assessment of quality assurance for malaria diagnosis in existing government hospital laboratories in Sokoto State, Nigeria”

Prevalence of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin-B resistance among clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

*1,2Ade, T. I., 1Osiyemi, J. A., 2Aso, R. E., 3Akinduti, P. A., and 4Sunmola, N. O.
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria
3Microbiology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2347066369670

Abstract:
Background: Inducible antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive cocci is a significant public health challenge that is grossly underreported within Africa, especially Nigeria. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-B (MLSB) resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Methodology: Clinical isolates were presumptively identified by Gram’s stain reaction and conventional biochemical tests such as catalase, coagulase, DNase, and mannitol fermentation. Phenotypic MLSB resistance was determined by placing clindamycin and erythromycin discs within 15 mm of each other and observing for a D-zone. Antibiotic sensitivity testing to selected antibiotics including cefoxitin for detection of methicillin resistance, was done using the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Continue reading “Prevalence of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin-B resistance among clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria”

Comparative analysis of haematological parameters in HIV patients with co-infections of hepatitis B & C, and HIV-negative patients in Rivers State, Nigeria

*1Erasmus, M. A., 2Akani, N. P.,

2Amadi, L. O., and 2Williams, J. O.
1Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, P.M.B 5064, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University Nkpolu Oroworukwo, P.M.B 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; 08038213334; 08033102655

Abstract:

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has continued to be a threat to global health with several deaths
recorded despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Co-infection of hepatitis B and C is
now one of the leading causes of death among HIV-infected patients due to some haematological abnormalities and
immunological impairment. This study was conducted to compare some haematological parameters of HIV-infected
patients with hepatitis B and C co-infections from three hospitals in Rivers State, Nigeria

Methodology: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of randomly recruited HIV-patients from antiretroviral
therapy (ART) clinic and HIV-negative patients from medical out-patient department (MOPD) of three different
hospitals in Rivers State, Nigeria. Socio-demographic information of each participant was obtained with a structured
questionnaire. Four millilitres of blood were collected from each participant by venipuncture; 2 ml each were dispensed
into ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and plain bottles for estimation of full blood count (FBC), cluster of
differentiation 4 (CD4), HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology. Continue reading “Comparative analysis of haematological parameters in HIV patients with co-infections of hepatitis B & C, and HIV-negative patients in Rivers State, Nigeria”

Bacteriological quality of community well water and public health concerns in Enugu urban, Nigeria

1Obikpo, L., 2Onyia, F. C., 1Offe, I. M., 1Ezeilo, C. M, 3Ezebialu, C., and *4Afunwa, R. A.

1Department of Biological Sciences, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

3Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

4Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Water is a basic necessity used by humans for both domestic and industrial uses. Next to air, water is essential to life. It takes up about 71% of the earth’s surface. The objective of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of well water in Enugu urban, Nigeria

Methodology: A total of 60 domestic wells were selected from Abakpa, Obiagu and Achara layouts in Engu urban, Nigeria by stratified random sampling method, with 20 wells selected from each area based on location of well sites and construction parameters. Water samples were collected from each well using a sterile 200ml plastic bottle for bacteriological analysis to estimate total bacteria count in colony forming unit (cfu)/ml, total coliform count in most probable number (mpn)/100ml, and faecal coliform count in most probable number (mpn)/100ml. Bacterial isolates were identified using Gram reaction and conventional biochemical tests including catalase and coagulase for Gram positive bacteria, and oxidase, citrate utilization, hydrogen sulfide, indole, urease, methyl red, Voges Proskauer, and sugar fermentation tests for Gram negative bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of each isolate was performed by the disk diffusion method against selected antibiotics including penicillin G (10μg), ciprofloxacin (5μg), streptomycin (10μg), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20/10μg), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (25μg), and result interpreted using the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) break points. Comparative statistics of the data was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Bacteriological quality of community well water and public health concerns in Enugu urban, Nigeria”

Molecular detection of vector-borne bacterial pathogens in dromedary camels from Algeria

*1Bessas, A., 2Zaidi, S., 3Noui, A., 4Hezil, Dj., 2Zenia, S., and 5Bitam, I.

1Department of Biology, Benyoucef Benkhedda University of Algiers 1, 16000, Algiers, Algeria

2Higher National Veterinary School, 16000, Algiers, Algeria

3Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Ibn Khaldoun University, 14000, Tiaret, Algeria

4Department of Biology, M’Hamed Bougara University, 35000, Boumerdes, Algeria

5Higher School of Food Science and Agri-Food Industry (ESSAIA), 16000, Algiers, Algeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: In Algeria, little focus was placed on camels as hosts of tick-borne bacterial diseases. Recent studies showed a high prevalence of tick infestation in dromedaries. Transmission of various pathogenic microorganisms to camels by ticks imposes considerable economic losses to livestock and greatly impact on human and animal health. The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne zoonotic bacteria in camels from Algeria.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 80 randomly selected camels in Laghouat province, southern Algeria. The samples were screened for Anaplasma spp, Bartonella spp, Rickettsia spp and Coxiella burnetii by qPCR. All positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR followed by sequencing. Data on age, sex, tick infestation and location of the camels were analyzed using the SPSS version 17.0 and association of these with vector-borne bacterial pathogens was determined using Chi-square (χ2) test. P value lower than 0.05 was considered as indicative of significance. Continue reading “Molecular detection of vector-borne bacterial pathogens in dromedary camels from Algeria”