Diverse genetic subtypes of HIV-1 among female sex workers in Ibadan, Nigeria

SA Fayemiwo, GN Odaibo, JL Sankale, AA Oni, RA Bakare, OD Olaleye, P Kanki

 

Abstract

Genetic diversity is the hallmark of HIV-1 infection. It differs among geographical regions throughout the world. This study was undertaken to identify the predominant HIV-1 subtypes among infected female sex workers (FSWs) in Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred and fifty FSWs from brothels in Ibadan Nigeria were screened for HIV antibody using ELISA. All reactive samples were further tested by the Western Blot Techniques. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were separated from the blood samples of each subject. Fragments of HIV Proviral DNA was amplified and genetic subtypes of HIV-1 was determined by direct sequencing of the env and gag genes of the viral genome followed by phylogenetic analysis . Results: The age of the FSWs ranged from 15 to 55 years old (Mean = 25.8years, SD =3.74). Majority were Nigerians while others (1.6 %) were from neighboring West Africa countries. Four ( 1.6% ) of the FSWs were active for less than one year as sex workers, and the mean length of sex work was 2.80 years ( Range = 1.0 – 15.0 years ). Sixty-four (25.6%) of the 250 CSWs were positive for HIV-1 while 7 (2-8%) had dual infections to HIV-1 / HIV-2. Among the 34 HIV-1 strains  characterized by sequencing, 19 (55-9%) were subtype G, 9 (26.5%) CRF02_A/G, 3 (8.8%) CRF06_cpx while 1 (2.9%) each were identified as subtype C, CRF01_A/E and CRF09_cpx respectively. Nineteen (55.9%) of the FSWs with subtype G had been active in the sex work for between one to five years. The youngest of the HIV -1 infected FSWs with sexual activity of less than a year had subtype G strain. There is a significant probability that infection with this subtype occurred with a short incubation period (p< 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a wide range of HIV- 1 subtypes among FSWs in Nigeria. The situation poses serious challenge for the design of HIV vaccine candidate for use in Nigeria.

Keywords: Diverse, HIV, subtypes, Female Sex workers and Vaccine

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Diverse genetic subtypes of HIV-1 among female sex workers in Ibadan, Nigeria

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection amongst plwha in ibadan, Nigeria

SA Fayemiwo, OA Adesina, JO Akinyemi, GN Odaibo, TO Omikunle, IF Adewole

 

Abstract

BackgroundMolluscum contagiosum (MC) infection is caused by a pox virus and the virus is probably passed on by direct skinto- skin contact which may affect any part of the body. There is anecdotal evidence associating facial lesions with HIV-related immunodeficiency. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Molluscum contagiosum infection among PLWHAs attending ART clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 5,207 patients (3519 female and 1688 males) attending ART clinic between January 2006 and December 2007. Physicians performed complete physical and pelvic examinations. Diagnosis of Molluscum Contagiosum infection was based on the clinical findings of typical lesions on the external genitalia, perianal, trunk, abdominal and facial regions.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 34.67 yrs. ± 9.16). About 10% (542) had various sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The male to female ratio was 1: 4.2. One hundred and twenty seven subjects (23.4%) had no formal or primary education with 247 (45.6 %) beingtreatment naïve while 295 (54.4 %) were treatment experienced. Of the 542 PLWHAs with STIs, 3.3 % had undetectable viral load (< 200 copies/ ml) while 272 (50.1 %) had low CD4 count (< 200 cells / mm3.) and The Mean log10 viral load was 5.02 + 0.94. Molluscum Contagiosum infection was diagnosed in 13 patients (0.024%; 8 females and 5 males). Vaginal Candidiasis was the commonest genital infection diagnosed in 223 (41.1%) of the patients with STIs. MC patients had higher viral load, lower CD4 count and more likely to be treatment experienced”.

Conclusions: Molluscum Contagiosum infection is not uncommon among the HIV-infected patients, but underreported. Awareness of this cutaneous manifestation should be known to Physicians in AIDS care.

Key Words: Molluscum contagiosum, HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infection

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Molluscum contagiosum virus infection amongst plwha in ibadan, Nigeria

Seroprevalence of parvovirus BI9 antibody in blood donors and sickle cell disease patients at Lagos university teaching hospital (LUTH): a comparative study

MC Iheanacho, SA Akanmu, B Nwogoh

 

Abstract

Introduction: Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is a DNA virus transmissible by blood transfusion. It is a major cause of aplastic crisis especially in chronic haemolytic anaemic patients such as sickle cell disease patients.
Objective: The study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of PVB19 in blood donors and sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients and to evaluate its association with blood transfusion in SCA patients.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos Nigeria. Three hundred participants, consisting of 150 voluntary blood donors and 150 sickle cell anaemia subjects were enrolled into the study. Seroprevalence of parvovirus was determined using ELISA kits for IgG and IgM anti-PVB19 antibodies by Immuno-Biological Laboratories, (IBL) inc. Minneapolis, USA. Results was analyzed with SPSS 11 software and presented in tables. Fishers Exact test, Chi-square and student T-test were used as appropriate to compare variables between both groups. P-values <0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Ninety nine (66%) blood donors were positive for anti-PVB19 IgG antibody while ninety two (61.3%) sickle cell patients were positive. Two (1.3%) blood donors were positive anti-PVB19 IgM antibodies while 8 (5.3%) SCD patients were positive for anti-PVB19 IgM antibodies. There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antiPVB19 virus in both groups. There was no association of parvovirus seroprevalence with blood transfusion.
Conclusion: The study has shown a high seroprevalence of IgG anti-PVB19 antibodies in both blood donors and SCA patients. Therefore routine screening for parvovirus infection for donor blood is not justified. However seronegative SCA patients who require blood transfusion should have the blood screened for parvovirus to reduce the risk of associated aplastic crisis.

Key words: Seroprevalence, parvovirus B19, blood donors, sickle cell anaemia

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Seroprevalence of parvovirus BI9 antibody in blood donors and sickle cell disease patients at Lagos university teaching hospital LUTH a comparative study