Predictive factors of clinical assays on hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 mortality during the first year of the pandemic: a meta-synthesis

*1,2Million, M., 1,2Dudouet, P., 1,2Chabriere, E., 1,3Cortaredona, S., 1,2Roussel, Y., 1,2Brouqui, P., and 1,2Raoult, D.

1IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France
2Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, Marseille, France
3Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Marseille, France
*Correspondence to: Prof. Matthieu Million. MEPHI, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. E-mail: [email protected]; Phone: + 33 (0) 4 13 73 24 01; Fax: + 33 (0) 4 13 73 24 02

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a violent debate about the efficacy of a repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and a new broad-spectrum antiviral (remdesivir) and about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. To understand conflicting results in the literature, we performed a meta-synthesis to determine whether intrinsic qualitative criteria within studies may predict apparent efficacy or ineffectiveness of HCQ and remdesivir. Continue reading “Predictive factors of clinical assays on hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 mortality during the first year of the pandemic: a meta-synthesis”

Invasive fungal infections and COVID-19: a review

1,2,3Fayemiwo, S. A., and *4Adegboro, B.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Medical Mycology Unit, Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

3Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected] and [email protected]

Abstract:
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients all over the world with a global prevalence of 15%. Since the first case of COVID-19 was reported on February 27, 2020, in Nigeria, it had been discovered across all geopolitical zones in Nigeria. As the medical community confronts the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, determining whether patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop fungal complications, especially invasive aspergillosis, is crucial. This review aimed to highlight the fungal co-infections that might be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and modalities for their diagnosis, prevention, and management, with the view to reducing the high mortality associated with these infections. Continue reading “Invasive fungal infections and COVID-19: a review”

Leptospirosis: a need for increased awareness and improved laboratory testing

Clinical Laboratory Science Department, Winston-Salem State University, 304-D New Science Building, 601 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27110, USA Correspondence to: [email protected]; 336-750-8339 (work); 336-253-3677 (cell)

Abstract:
While leptospirosis is currently described as an emerging pathogen, there have likely been numerous cases worldwide each year for centuries. Hurricanes and other flooding events contribute to its spread through rodent urine, many cases of which go undiagnosed. This is especially problematic in developing countries where laboratory techniques may be out of date. There are over 100 cases per year in the United States of America, but millions of cases occur worldwide annually. Caused by many different species of fastidious, spiral-shaped Leptospira, it is difficult and slow to culture. Strides have been made to improve culture techniques in order to reduce the time to grow this genus of bacteria. Greater understanding of this disease by laboratorians, physicians, and other healthcare workers and improved laboratory identification techniques will help increase diagnoses and decrease morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis. Continue reading “Leptospirosis: a need for increased awareness and improved laboratory testing”

A review of the implications of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria in human and animal diseases

*1Bamidele, T. A., 2Odumosu, B. T., 3Shittu, O. B., 4Adeniyi, B. A., and 5Ogunshe, A. O.

*1Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, College of Biosciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

4Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Koladaisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348038578093; ORCID: //orcid.org/0000-0003-2155-8639

Abstract:
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria are taxonomically distinct groups of bacteria with proven biotechnological properties such as anti-cancer, immune-stimulating, anti-microbial, maintenance of normal flora balance, probiotics, anti-inflammatory, vaccine carriers, among others. However, studies have implicated some of them, including the ones under the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) qualified presumption of safety in fatal human and veterinary diseases. We performed online database searches of publications on Google, Google Scholar and PubMed using the criteria, “lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria as causative agents of human, animal diseases”. Data generated showed LAB across genera and Bifidobacteria either primarily or opportunistically involved in diseases of both immuno-competent and immuno-depressed humans and animals. The members of lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus gasseri and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, were mainly implicated in nosocomial infections, endophthalmitis, neonatal meningitis, and bacteraemia while Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Bifidobacteria, specifically, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis were implicated in urinary tract infections (UTIs), necrotizing pancreatitis, fatal pulmonary infections, sepsis, and epidural abscess. The animal diseases, neonatal sepsis in foal, was caused by Weissella confusa while the fish pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae caused various zoonotic cases such as acute acalculous cholecystitis in human. In conclusion, this review showed the up-to-date reports on LAB and Bifidobacteria implicated in serious humans and animal diseases. Continue reading “A review of the implications of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria in human and animal diseases”

Nasopharyngeal temperature probes: is South Africa’s current decontamination process adequate?

*Davids, R., and Cilliers, C.
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract
Background: The standard practice in many institutions incorporates nasopharyngeal probes for temperature monitoring in patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Current disinfection guidelines for these devices are not clear and they are poorly adhered to. In South Africa, these temperature probes are reused and subjected to unstandardized decontamination processes. This study sought to investigate nasopharyngeal temperature probes as possible source for cross-contamination, and assess the efficacy of current disinfection practices for these probes. Continue reading “Nasopharyngeal temperature probes: is South Africa’s current decontamination process adequate?”

High faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among hospitalized patients at Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital, Lomé, Togo in 2019

*1,2Godonou, A. M., 2Lack, F., 3,4Gbeasor-Komlanvi, F. A., 2Konlani, L., 2,3Dossim, S., 1Ameyapoh, Y. A., 3,4Ekouevi, K., 2,3Dagnra, A. Y., and 3,5Salou, M.

1High School of Biological and Food Technics, University of Lomé, Togo

2Teaching Hospital Sylvanus Olympio, Lomé, Togo

3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Togo

4Faculty of Health Sciences Public Heath Department, University of Lomé, Togo

5Teaching Hospital Campus, Lomé, Togo *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are a global health concern, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Even in the absence of infections, colonization by these pathogens is still a great threat because of the risk of cross transfer among hospitalized patients. Faecal carriage of ESBL-PE remained poorly documented in Africa. This study aimed to determine faecal carriage rate of ESBL-PE, factors associated with carriage, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains among hospitalized patients at Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospitals (CHU SO) in Lomé, Togo. Continue reading “High faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among hospitalized patients at Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital, Lomé, Togo in 2019”

Faecal carriage of multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized children at University Teaching Hospital Sylvanus Olympio of Lomé, Togo

1Lack, F., 1Tsogbalé, A., 2Doumegno, J. K., 3Dossim, S., 1Dagnra, A., and *1,4Salou, M.

1Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo

2Laboratory of Microbiology and Food Quality Control, University of Lomé, Togo

3CHU Kara Medical Biology Laboratory, Kara, Togo

4National AMR Reference Laboratory CHU Campus, Lomé, Togo

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: High prevalence of infections and associated antibiotherapy may put children at increased risk for development of multidrug-resistance (MDR), mostly to bacterial infections. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of MDR Enterobacteriaceae among hospitalized children in the Paediatric department of Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital, Lomé, Togo. Continue reading “Faecal carriage of multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized children at University Teaching Hospital Sylvanus Olympio of Lomé, Togo”

Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in a tertiary health facility in north-central Nigeria

*1Audu, E. S., 2Adiukwu, C. V., 3Dick, S. N., 4Bello, S. O., 5Aboki, D. M., 6Ashuku, Y. A., and 7Tomen, E. A.

1Special Treatment Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

2Department of Internal Medicine, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

3TB/DOTS Unit, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

4Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

5TBLCP, Nasarawa State Ministry of Health, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

6College of Medicine, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

7Department of Family Medicine, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2347030969315

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health concern despite being a curable and preventable disease. The treatment of TB using a cocktail of drugs over a period of six months under the directly observed treatment short-course strategy has led to a reduction in cases but is plagued by some challenges that leads to unsuccessful or poor outcomes, which can ultimately result in spread of infections, development of drug resistance and increase in morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to determine outcomes of TB treatment in Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria and the factors that may be associated with the outcomes. Continue reading “Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in a tertiary health facility in north-central Nigeria”

Malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity rate among febrile patients seen at the Paediatric emergency unit of a tertiary care facility

*1Obu, D. C., 1Asiegbu, U. V., 1Okereke, B. E., 1Ukoh, U. C., 2Ujunwa, F. A., 1Afefi, C. O., 1Enya, V. E., 1Item, S., and 3Efunshile, A. M.

1Department of Paediatrics, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

2Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Microbiology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348037511272

Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted to humans by the female Anopheles mosquito is one of the infectious causes of fever in children. In Nigeria, malaria remains one of the most important health problems, accounting for 25% of infants and 30% of under-five mortalities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria among febrile children presenting at the children’s emergency room (CHER) of a tertiary health facility in Abakaliki using a malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). Continue reading “Malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity rate among febrile patients seen at the Paediatric emergency unit of a tertiary care facility”

Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica Linn (Mango) bark and leaf extracts on bacteria isolated from domestic wastewater samples

1Omotayo, O. E., 2Oladipo, G. A., 3Adekunle, D. O., and 2Akinola, O. T.

1Pure and Applied Biology Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science,
P. M. B 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
2Microbiology Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, P.M.B 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
3Industrial Chemistry Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science,
P. M. B 284, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234 802 379 9838

Abstract:
Background: Wastewaters generated from ubiquitous use of water in daily human activities often contains various pathogenic microorganisms, which may contaminate surface or ground waters when released indiscriminately into the environment. Consumption of natural water resources polluted by such contaminated wastewaters may compromise public health and decrease the populations of aquatic organisms in such water bodies. Mangifera indica (mango) plants have been widely used as remedy for treatment of a wide range of water borne ailments. This study was therefore conducted to identify bacteria contaminating wastewaters from domestic sources and to determine the antibacterial potentials of mango bark and leaf extracts against them. Continue reading “Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica Linn (Mango) bark and leaf extracts on bacteria isolated from domestic wastewater samples”