A call: COVID-19 research funding in Africa

*1,8Oladipo, E. K., 2Ajayi, A. F., 3Oladipo, A. A., 4Ariyo, O. E., 5Oladipo, B. B., 6Ajayi, L. O., and 7Oloke, J. K.

1Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Immunology, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

2Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

3Department of Haematology and Blood Grouping Serology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife Wesley Guild Hospital Wing, Osun State, Nigeria

4Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

5Department of Clinical Nursing, Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria 6Department of Biochemistry, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

7Department of Natural Science, Precious Cornerstone University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

8Genomics Unit, Helix Biogen Consult, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: koladipo2k3@yahoo.co.uk

Received May 12, 2020; Revised May 17, 2020; Accepted May 18, 2020 Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Un appel: le financement de la recherche COVID-19 en Afrique

*1,8Oladipo, E. K., 2Ajayi, A. F., 3Oladipo, A. A., 4Ariyo, O. E., 5Oladipo, B. B., 6Ajayi, L. O., et 7Oloke, J. K.

1Département de microbiologie, Laboratoire de biologie moléculaire, bioinformatique et immunologie, Université d’Adeleke, Ede, État d’Osun, Nigéria

2Département de physiologie, Université technologique de Ladoke Akintola, Ogbomoso, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

3Département d’hématologie et de sérologie sanguine, complexe hospitalier universitaire Obafemi Awolowo, aile de l’hôpital Ile Ife Wesley Guild, État d’Osun, Nigéria

4Département de médecine, unité des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, hôpital universitaire fédéral, Ido-Ekiti, État d’Ekiti, Nigéria

5Département des soins infirmiers cliniques, Hôpital universitaire de Bowen, Ogbomoso, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

6Département de biochimie, Université d’Adeleke, Ede, État d’Osun, Nigéria

7Département des sciences naturelles, Precious Cornerstone University, Ibadan, État d’Oyo, Nigéria 8Genomics Unit, Helix Biogen Consult, Ogbomoso, État d’Oyo, Nigéria

*Correspondance à: koladipo2k3@yahoo.co.uk

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A call: COVID-19 research funding in Africa 

Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity

Joseph, A. A., and *Fagbami, A. H.
Department of Microbial Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences,
University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: hfagbami@gmail.com

Abstract:
Human coronaviruses, which hitherto were causative agents of mild respiratory diseases of man, have recently become one of the most important groups of pathogens of humans the world over. In less than two decades, three members of the group, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-COV-2, have emerged causing disease outbreaks that affected millions and claimed the lives of thousands of people. In 2017, another coronavirus, the swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) coronavirus (SADS-CoV) emerged in animals killing over 24,000 piglets in China. Because of the medical and veterinary importance of coronaviruses, we carried out a review of available literature and summarized the current information on their properties and diversity. Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses with some unique characteristics such as the possession of a very large nucleic acid, high infidelity of the RNA-dependent polymerase, and high rate of mutation and recombination in the genome. They are susceptible to a number of physical agents and several chemical agents used for disinfection procedures in hospitals and laboratories. They exhibit considerable genetic and host diversity, causing diseases of gastrointestinal and respiratory system in a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. The high prevalence of coronaviruses in domestic and wild animals, especially bats and birds, and the propensity for their genomes to undergo mutation and recombination may lead to emergence of new coronaviruses that could pose a serious threat to human and animal health.

Keywords: coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-Cov-2, properties, diversity, review Continue reading “Coronaviruses: a review of their properties and diversity”

Salmonella Kentucky: prevalence and challenges in Nigeria and the Africa continent

Igomu, E. E.
Bacterial Vaccine Production Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, P. M. B. 01 Vom, Nigeria Correspondence to: elayonigomu@gmail.com; +2348032786224

Abstract:

Salmonella Kentucky is ubiquitous in most African countries and the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains remain underreported across the continent. In Nigeria, poverty, inter country livestock trades, nomadic system of cattle production, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and prevalent immuno-compromising diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and tuberculosis are factors that have enabled ease of transmission and complications of S. Kentucky infections. In the present decade, S. Kentucky is reported to be the most prevalent serovar associated with poultry in Nigeria, but very few reports underline the risk associated with consumption of poultry and acquisition of MDR S. Kentucky strains. The Nigerian poultry is one of the most commercialized subsectors of Nigerian agriculture, therefore, the presence of S. Kentucky especially strains carrying broad spectrum antimicrobial resistance pose a great risk to public health. The lack of proper monitoring, surveillance, isolation and control of the multidrug resistant S. Kentucky will remain a challenge to the export potential of the Nigerian poultry subsector and livestock in general. As a nation, modalities and actions against the smuggling of poultry products, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and nomadic system for the production of dairy and beef that promotes spread of virulent strains of Salmonellae must change. The impact of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans in Nigeria also remains under studied and under reported, especially those caused by S. Kentucky ST198. Compounding these concerns is the lack of commercial veterinary or human vaccines against S. Kentucky or where vaccines against the broad serogroup C non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are available, they are rarely supplied, with no evidence they could be cross-protective. This review emphasizes the emergence and widespread occurrence of MDR S. Kentucky strains on the African continent, and discussed risk factors contributing to its spread in Nigeria and the potential public health challenge especially to high-risk immunocompromised individuals.
Keywords: Salmonella Kentucky, ST198 strain, multidrug resistant, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Nigeria, Africa
Received April 30, 2020; Revised May 8, 2020; Accepted May 10, 2020
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.
Salmonella Kentucky: prévalence et défis au Nigeria et sur le continent africain
Igomu, E. E.
Division de la production de vaccins bactériens, Institut national de recherche vétérinaire, P. M. B. 01 Vom, Nigéria Correspondance à: elayonigomu@gmail.com; +2348032786224 Continue reading “Salmonella Kentucky: prevalence and challenges in Nigeria and the Africa continent”

Co-infections of MERS-CoV with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia

*1Al-Quthami, K., 2Al-Waneen, W. S., and 3Al Johnyi, B. O.

1Regional Laboratory, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

2National Centre of Agricultural Technology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia

3King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

*Correspondence to: khmrqu@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:

Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a member of the coronaviruses called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The co-infections of MERS-CoV with other respiratory viruses have been documented in rare cases in the scientific literature. This study was carried out to determine whether confection of MERS-CoV occurs with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs samples of 57 MERS-CoV positive outpatients were collected using flocked swabs. Nucleic acid was extracted from each sample using commercial NucliSens easyMAG system. Amplification was performed by multiplex RT-PCR using Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory Pathogen 33. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 19 and comparison of variables was done with Fisher Exact test, with p value <0.05 considered significant.

Results: Six of the total 57 MERS-COV patients (35 males, 22 females) were positive for co-infection of MERS CoV with other respiratory viruses, giving a prevalence rate of 10.5%, with 14.5% (5/35) in males and 4.5% (1/22) in females (OR=3.500, 95% CI=0.3806-32.188, p=0.3889). The prevalence of co-infections was significantly higher among non-Saudis (23.8%, 5/21) than Saudis (2.8%, 1/36) (OR=0.09143, 95% CI=0.009855-0.8485, p=0.0217), and among the age group 18-34 years (25%, 3/12) than other age groups (X2=3.649, p=0.1613). Human rhinovirus (HRV) was found in 2 of the 6 (33.3%) patients with co-infection while the other viruses were found in each of the remaining 4 patients.

Conclusion: Our study confirms that MERS-CoV co-infects with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: MERS-CoV, URTI,  Co-infection, Coronavirus Continue reading “Co-infections of MERS-CoV with other respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia”

Infections of implantable cardiac devices by biofilm forming bacteria in western Algeria hospitals

1Meziani, Z., 1Hassaine, H., and 2Belhachemi, F.

1Laboratory of Applied Microbiology in Food, Biomedical and Environment (LAMAABE), University of Tlemcen, Algeria

2Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Tlemcen, Algeria

*Correspondence to: zahera_fd@yahoo.fr; 00213553406801

Abstract:

Background: The significant increase in the use of implantable cardiac devices (ICDs) has been accompanied by biofilm formation and increase rate of infection on the devices. The purpose of our study is to describe the clinical and microbiological findings of infection of ICDs in the cardiology units of western Algeria hospitals.

Methodology: All patients with clinical diagnosis of ICD infections or infective endocarditis upon removal of their ICDs from December 2012 to August 2014 in cardiology units of 4 Algerian hospitals were included in the study. Each element of the ICD pocket and lead was separately sonicated in sterile saline, inoculated onto Chapman and MacConkey agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37oC for colony count after 24 hours. Biochemical identification of the bacteria isolates was made by API 20E, API 20 NE and API Staph, and confirmed by Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics WalkAway® 96 Plus System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing on each isolate was performed by the disk diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA) and Tissue Culture Plate (TCP) methods, and hydrophobicity of the bacterial cell was determined by the MATH protocol.

Results: Over a period of twenty-one months, 17 ICDs were removed from patients with post-operative infections; 6 (35.3%) had early infection of ICD and 11 (64.7%) had late ICD infection. Fifty-four bacterial strains were isolated and identified, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being the predominant bacteria with 46.3% (25/54). There was no significant association between hydrophobicity and antimicrobial resistance in the 54 isolates but there is positive correlation between biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance, with the strongest biofilm producers resistant to more than one antibiotic. Four independent predictors of infection of resynchronization devices were reported; reoperation, multi-morbidity, long procedure, and ICD implantation.

Conclusion: Our study is the first in Algeria to describe microbiological characteristics of ICD infection. The bacteria in the biofilm were protected, more resistant and tolerated high concentrations of antibiotics and thus played a major role in the development of ICD infections. Despite the improvements in ICD design and implantation techniques, ICD infection remains a serious challenge.

Keywords: implantable cardiac devices, staphylococci, resistance, biofilm, hydrophobicity Continue reading “Infections of implantable cardiac devices by biofilm forming bacteria in western Algeria hospitals”

Effects of certain disinfectants and antibiotics on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from medical devices at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

*1,2Kara Terki, I., 1Hassaine, H., 3Kara Terki, A., 4Nadira, B., 5Kara Terki, N., 1Bellifa, S., 1Mhamedi, I., and 1,5lachachi, M.

1Laboratory of Food, Biomedical and Environnemental Microbiology (LAMAABE)

2University of Djilali lyabes, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

3University Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria

4Ecole Supérieure de Management, Tlemcen, Algeria

5University Belhadj Chouaib Ain Temouchent, Algeria
*Correspondence to: ibti.kara@gmail.com

Abstract:

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the species of bacteria most frequently isolated from medical devices. The ability to produce biofilm is an important step in the pathogenesis of these staphylococci infection, and biofilm formation is strongly dependent on environmental conditions as well as antibiotics and disinfectants used in the treatment and prevention of infections.

Methodology: In this study, 28 S. aureus isolated from medical devices at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes in Northwestern Algeria were tested for biofilm formation by culture on Red Congo Agar (RCA). The tube method (TM) and tissue culture plate (TCP) techniques were also used to investigate the effect of penicillin, ethanol and betadine on pre-formed biofilm.
Results: Nineteen S. aureus isolates produced biofilm on the RCA and 7 produced biofilms by the tube method, 2 of which were high producer. In addition, 9 S. aureus isolates produced biofilm on polystyrene micro-plates, and in the presence of penicillin and ethanol, this number increased to 19 and 11 biofilm producing S. aureus isolates respectively. On the other hand, no biofilm was formed in the presence of betadine.

Conclusion: It is important to test for biofilm formation following an imposed external constraint such as disinfectants and antibiotics in order to develop new strategies to combat bacterial biofilms but also to better control their formation.

Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, biofilm, medical device, disinfectant, antibiotic

Continue reading “Effects of certain disinfectants and antibiotics on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from medical devices at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria”

Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students of a private institution in Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

*1Ajani, T. A., 1Elikwu C. J., 1Nwadike, V., 1Babatunde, T., 2Anaedobe, C. J., 1Shonekan, O., 1Okangba, C. C., 1Omeonu, A., 1Faluyi, B., 1Thompson, T. E., 1Ebeigbe, E., 3Eze, B. G., 4Ajani, M. A., 1Perelade, K., 1Amoran, M., 1Okisor, P., 1Worancha, T., 1Ayoade, J.,
1Agbeniga, E., 1Emmanuel, C., and 1Coker, C. A.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Ben Carson School of Medicine/Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja, Federal Capital territory, Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Histopathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

4Department of Histopathology, College of Medicine/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: solamustoo@yahoo.com; +2348034412609

Abstract:

Background: Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major factor for its transmission especially from the health workers and medical students to their patients. There are a number of published data on the prevalence of MRSA among health workers but data on nasal colonization of medical students by MRSA are sparse in Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of nasal carriage of MRSA among medical students of the Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, and identify risk factors associated with this nasal carriage.

Methodology: A case control study involving 100 clinical (study group) and 100 pre- clinical (control group) medical students was undertaken between March 2018 and October 2019. Structured questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic information and potential risk factors. Nasal swab was collected from each student and cultured for isolation of S. aureus by standard microbiology techniques. Phenotypic MRSA was detected by the cefoxitin 30μg disk diffusion method according to the guideline of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The mecA gene was detected by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

Results: The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage among the study group was 14% (14/100) while the prevalence among the control group was 6% (6/100) (p=0.097). The prevalence of phenotypic MRSA among the study group was 4% (4/100) and 1% (1/100) among the control group (p=0.3687) while mecA gene was detected in 3 of the 4 (75%) phenotypic MRSA positive study participants and in the only (100%) phenotypic MRSA positive (1%) control group. Antibiotics usage without prescription, antibiotic treatment of common cold, and use of antibiotics in the previous one year, were significantly associated with MRSA carriage among the study group.

Conclusion: Although the prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA among clinical and pre-clinical medical students was not statistically significant, the risk factors identified with carriage of MRSA among the study group indicates the need for antimicrobial stewardship program to reduce carriage and transmission of MRSA by medical students.

Keywords: methicillin resistant, Staphylococcus aureus, mecA gene, nasal carriage, medical students

Received March 25, 2020; Revised April 27, 2020; Accepted April 28, 2020 Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/”, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source.

Continue reading “Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students of a private institution in Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria”

Effects of highly active antiretroviral treatment on liver and renal functions of HIV-infected patients attending the day care clinic of the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

*1Samje, M., 2Youego, E. K. J., 2Kefeyin, T. W., and 3Lukong, H.
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, P. O. Box 39, Bambili, Republic of Cameroon
2Department Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon
3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Kesmonds International University, Cameroon *Correspondence to: msamje@gmail.com; +237677679112

Abstract:

Background: Though the development of antiretroviral therapy has brought some relief to the menace of HIV infections, the side effects and toxicity of these drugs can still present a major challenge to users, thus leading to a switch or discontinuation of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antiretroviral treatment on some biochemical markers of liver and renal functions among HIV-infected patients receiving treatment at the Day Care Clinic of the Regional Hospital, Bamenda, Cameroon

Methodology: A case control study design comprising 100 HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 100 HIV-negative controls was conducted from February to May 2019. The serum activity of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and serum creatinine levels for each group were measured using BIOSMART 240 autoanalyzer. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula while proteinuria was determined with the CYBOW 11M strips. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0. Differences in the serum activity and levels of the biomarkers between the case and control groups were analyzed using the Chi-square test

Results: The prevalence of transaminitis (AST and ALT >40.0 U/L) among HAART-treated participants was 26.0% for AST and 20% for ALT while that of HIV-negative controls were 15% and 12% respectively but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Elevated serum creatinine level (>1.4 mg/dL) was seen in 25% of HAART-treated group compared to 7% in HIV-negative control (p=0.0010) while renal impairment (eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73m2) was seen in 24% of HAART-treated and 14% of HIV-negative group (p=0.1048). Elevated activity of transaminases and levels of creatinine, proteinuria and abnormal eGFR in HAART-treated patients were mostly seen in those who were on first line antiretroviral therapy, and those who have been on treatment for over 5 years.

Conclusion: HAART is associated with transaminitis and elevated serum creatinine but no increase in renal impairment compared to the general population. It is important that following initiation of HAART, liver and kidney functions are regularly monitored.

Keywords: HIV; HAART; AST; ALT; eGFR Continue reading “Effects of highly active antiretroviral treatment on liver and renal functions of HIV-infected patients attending the day care clinic of the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon”

In vitro assessment of the potency of some Newcastle disease vaccine brands in Ibadan, Nigeria

In vitro assessment of the potency of some Newcastle disease vaccine brands in Ibadan, Nigeria
1Okanlawon, A. A., *2Ameen, S. A., 2Kadir, R. A., 2Ambali, H. M., 2Baba, Y. A., 3Azeez, O. M. and 4Owoade, A. A.
1Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for Poultry and Livestock Diseases, CHI Farms Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
3Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: drsaameen@yahoo.com; ameen.sa@unilorin.edu.ng; +2348125064091; ORCID: //orcid.org /0000-0002-7453-1133

Abstract:

Background: Newcastle disease (ND) is a very common and economically important disease of poultry. There is no drug for treatment of the disease during an outbreak in poultry flocks, and prevention by vaccination is one of the recommended control measures. However, post vaccination outbreaks have been observed on many occasions in chicken flocks and one of the causes has been attributed to possible failure of vaccine to confer immunity. This study was designed to evaluate the potency of ND vaccines available in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methodology: Haemagglutination (HA) technique and elution phenomenon were employed to evaluate the potency of ND vaccines randomly selected in Ibadan. A total of 45 vaccines comprising 9 brands and 5 different strains were selected for potency test. The vaccine brands included ‘Vireo 116’ (n=10), ‘ABIC’ (n=5), ‘Biovac’(n=9), ‘Nobilis’(n=3), ‘NVRI’(n=12), ‘R2B’ (n=2), ‘BAL-ND’ (n=2), ‘Forte dodge’(n=1) and ‘Jovac’ (n=1), while the vaccine strains in the brands included Lasota, B1, Clone, Komarov, Hitcher, and an unknown strain.

Results: Thirty-five of the 45 (77.8%) ND vaccines tested had more than 4 HA titer (>64) and were therefore regarded as potent. All the 15 (100%) ND Lasota vaccine strain, 7 out of 10 (70%) ND Komarov strain, 4 out of 5 (80%) ND clone and 5 out of 8 (62.5%) ND B1 strains were potent. None of the ND brand ‘R2B’ vaccine as well as Hitchner strain from ‘Nobilis’ brand was potent, but all 5, 2, 1 and 1 vaccines tested from brands ‘ABIC’, ‘BAL-ND’, ‘Fort dodge’ and ‘Jovac’ respectively were potent. Similarly, 9 of 10, 6 of 9, 2 of 3 and 9 of 12 vaccine strains tested from brands ‘Vireo 116’, ‘Biovac’, ‘Nobilis’ and ‘NVRI’ were respectively potent

Conclusion: The occurrence of ND vaccines that are not potent in this study may be contributing to post vaccination failure. It is advisable to subject vaccines to potency test before use.

Key words: in vitro, assessment, potency, Newcastle disease, vaccine brands, vaccine strains Continue reading “In vitro assessment of the potency of some Newcastle disease vaccine brands in Ibadan, Nigeria”

In vivo anti-malarial activity of propranolol against experimental Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice

*1Adeyemi, O. I., 1Ige, O. O., 1Akanmu, M. A., and 2Ukponmwan, O. E.

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: wadeyemi01@yahoo.com & isaacon@oauife.edu.ng

Abstract:

Background: Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp, which is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study is to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of propranolol against experimental Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in a mouse model.

Methods: A total of 36 mice weighing between 15 to 18g were randomly divided into six groups of six mice each. Mice in the first group (SAL) were non-infected with P. berghei but received normal saline (control), second group (PbA) were mice infected without treatment (control), third group (PRL) were non-infected mice treated with propranolol at the dose of 7.5 mg/kg/bid, fourth group (PbA+PRL) were mice infected and treated with same dose of propranolol, fifth group (QUN) were non-infected mice treated with quinine at a dose of 20 mg/kg stat, then 10 mg/kg bid, and sixth group (PbA+QUN) were infected mice treated with quinine. Parasitaemia, physiological conditions (cognitive function, temperature) and lethality of infected mice were monitored over 7-day period to assess the antimalarial activity of propranolol and quinine. The Y-maze paradigm was used to assess cognitive impairment induced by PbA infection. The effects of propranolol on malaria indices and cognitive impairment were compared with that of quinine and the control using T-test statistical method.

Results: Mortality of mice at day 7 in the infected group without treatment (PbA) was 100% (6/6) while mortality was 50% (3/6) in infected group treated with propranolol (PbA+PRL) and 33.3% (2/6) in infected group treated with quinine (PbA+QUN) (OR=2.000, p=1.000). No mortality was recorded in any of the three groups of uninfected mice. Propranolol reduced parasitaemia to a trough level of 1.40±0.07 three days after treatment, comparable to trough level of 1.39±0.0633 by quinine but did not reverse PbA-induced hypothermia, which quinine did.

Conclusion: Propranolol demonstrated in vivo antimalarial activity against experimental PbA infection in mice comparable to that of quinine.

Keywords: malaria, propranolol, quinine, Plasmodium, cerebral malaria
Continue reading “In vivo anti-malarial activity of propranolol against experimental Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice”