Ojezele, M. O.
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Delta State University, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected], +2348033923332
The participation of microbiota in myriads of physiological, metabolic, genetic and immunological processes shows that they are a fundamental part of human existence and health maintenance. The efficiency of drugs’ absorption depends on solubility, stability, permeability and metabolic enzymes produced by the body and gut microbiota. Two major types of microbiota-drug interaction have been identified; direct and indirect. The use of antibiotics is a direct means of targeting intestinal microbes and short-term use of antibiotic can significantly alter the microbiome composition. It is noteworthy that not every microbial drug metabolism is of benefit to the host as some drugs can shut down microbial processes as observed in the co-administration of antiviral sorivudine with fluoropyridimide resulting in a toxic buildup of fluoropyridimide metabolites from blockade of host fluoropyridimide by the microbial-sorivudine metabolite. It has been reported that many classes of drugs and xenobiotics modify the gut microbiome composition which may be detrimental to human health. Microbiome-drug interaction may be beneficial or detrimental resulting in either treatment success or failure which is largely dependent on factors such as microbial enzymes, chemical composition of candidate drug, host immunity and the complex relationship that exists with the microbiome. The effects of microbiota on pharmacology of drugs and vice versa are discussed in this review.
Keywords: microbiome; pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, drug, xenobiotic
Received September 27, 2019; Revised November 30, 2019; Accepted December 3, 2019
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