Microbiome: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug/xenobiotic interactions

Ojezele, M. O.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Delta State University, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected], +2348033923332

Abstract:

The participation of microbiota in myriads of physiological, metabolic, genetic and immunological processes shows that they are a fundamental part of human existence and health maintenance. The efficiency of drugs’ absorption depends on solubility, stability, permeability and metabolic enzymes produced by the body and gut microbiota. Two major types of microbiota-drug interaction have been identified; direct and indirect. The use of antibiotics is a direct means of targeting intestinal microbes and short-term use of antibiotic can significantly alter the microbiome composition. It is noteworthy that not every microbial drug metabolism is of benefit to the host as some drugs can shut down microbial processes as observed in the co-administration of antiviral sorivudine with fluoropyridimide resulting in a toxic buildup of fluoropyridimide metabolites from blockade of host fluoropyridimide by the microbial-sorivudine metabolite. It has been reported that many classes of drugs and xenobiotics modify the gut microbiome composition which may be detrimental to human health. Microbiome-drug interaction may be beneficial or detrimental resulting in either treatment success or failure which is largely dependent on factors such as microbial enzymes, chemical composition of candidate drug, host immunity and the complex relationship that exists with the microbiome. The effects of microbiota on pharmacology of drugs and vice versa are discussed in this review.

Keywords: microbiome; pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, drug, xenobiotic

Received September 27, 2019; Revised November 30, 2019; Accepted December 3, 2019
Copyright 2020 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License (//creativecommmons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source. Continue reading “Microbiome: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug/xenobiotic interactions”

Serological evidence of association between Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary artery disease

1EL-Ageery, S. M., *1,4Gouda, N. S., 2Fawzy, I. M., 3Bahy-Eldeen, A., and 3Mahmoud, R.

1Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Mansoura Central Laboratories, Clinical Pathology Department, Ministry of Health, Egypt

3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

4Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 00966502933179

Abstract:

Background: Studies have reported relationship between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary artery disease (CAD). The cytotoxin-associated gene A product (CagA) is an immunodominant protein which indicates infection with virulent H. pylori strains. Significant associations of CagA-positive H. pylori strains with coronary artery disorders have been widely reported. H. pylori is also known to produce different heat shock proteins (HSPs) which can stimulate the production of specific antibody against microbial proteins and capable of eliciting autoimmune reaction against human tissue expressing HSPs such as vascular endothelial cells. The objectives of this study are to investigate the association between H. pylori and CagA with coronary atherosclerosis and CAD, and to determine the possible role of H. pylori HSP60 protein in increasing the risk of CAD development.

Methods: This study included 70 patients with stable angina and 70 age and gender-matched controls. Each group was evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, cardiac echocardiography (ECHO) and electrocardiography (ECG) with and without exercise. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were estimated by automated enzymatic methods. H. pylori IgG, CagA IgG and HSP60 IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for both groups. Continue reading “Serological evidence of association between Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary artery disease”

Prevalence and factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection among treatment naïve dyspeptic adults in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

1Odigie, A. O., *2Adewole, A. J., and 2Ekunwe, A. A.
1Department of Family Medicine, Central Hospital, Health Management Board, Benin City, Nigeria

2Department of Family Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348037222755

Abstract:

Background: Infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis have received tremendous attention globally but inspite of the widespread nature of infections caused by Helicobacter pylori, little attention has been paid to it especially in the developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study of 354 treatment naive dyspeptic patients aged 18 to 44 years, recruited consecutively after obtaining institutional ethical approval and subjects’ informed consent. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain subjects’ data. The stool antigen test was used to detect H. pylori infection. Continue reading “Prevalence and factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection among treatment naïve dyspeptic adults in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria”

Green synthesis of Ag, Zn and Cu nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

*1Adeyemi, D. K., 2Adeluola, A. O., 1Akinbile, M. J., 1Johnson, O. O., and 1Ayoola, G. A.

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +2348033871465

Abstract:

Background: Nanotechnology offers an advantage as a green route for synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with plant extracts as capping agent. Spondias mombin is a fruit-bearing tree and its leaf extracts have been reported to possess anxiolytic, hypoglycaemic, antiepileptic, antipsychotic, sedative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The objective of the study is to determine the antibacterial potential of a simple non-toxic product of green synthesis of metallic (Ag, Zn and Cu) nanoparticles using the leaf of Spondias mombin aqueous extracts (SMAE) as a reducing and capping agents of the metal ions.

Methodology: Nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectrophotometeric analysis, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of synthesized NPs against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined by agar well diffusion technique. Continue reading “Green synthesis of Ag, Zn and Cu nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and evaluation of their antibacterial activity”

Genotypic identification of coliforms isolated from cases of subclinical mastitis among pastoral herds in parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria

1, 2*Makolo, D., 2Suleiman, A. B., 2Olonitola, O. S., 3Bello, M., and 4Ahmadu, I.

1Department of Sciences, School of Preliminary Studies, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

4National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was initially considered the major problem in dairy herds, but over the last few decades, the incidence of coliform mastitis has increased among the pastoral herds in Nigeria due to poor environmental and milking hygiene. Hence, this study was aimed at genotypic identification of coliform bacteria isolated from cases of bovine mastitis among pastoral herds in parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 30 herds of cows across 7 Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria, was conducted. One hundred and forty seven cows were proportionately selected by purposive sampling technique. The milk samples were aseptically collected and bacteriologically screened for coliform bacteria following standard bacteriological techniques. Nine out of 12 coliforms identified phenotypically were selected for PCR amplification and sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of the sequences obtained was done on the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) data base, and isolates confirmed based on similarity to 16S rDNA sequences in the Gen Bank Continue reading “Genotypic identification of coliforms isolated from cases of subclinical mastitis among pastoral herds in parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria”

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

*1Nguemaïm, N. F., 2Takang, W. A., 2Dobgima, W. P., 2Guebidiang, B. M., 3Foumane, P., and 4Kamga, F. H. L.

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

2Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon

4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, coccidian parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. This infection, if acquired during pregnancy may result in severe damage. It affects a third of the world’s population. In many developing countries, its prevalence is unknown, and data concerning its seroprevalence among pregnant women is scarce in our study area. The objective of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) at the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. The results obtained will be useful in giving an estimate of the prevalence among pregnant women thus informing policy on preventive measures.

Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of pregnant women recruited between January and April 2018 using systematic random sampling technique. Socio-demographic data of participants and predisposing factors to toxoplasmosis were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire administered to them. Five milliliters of blood were collected and the serum screened for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using the cassette and buffer immunochromatographic method. The positive IgG cases were tested further by ELISA technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Associations between variables were tested by Chi square and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon”

Biochemical and immunological characterization of haemolysin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 isolated from burn wounds

*1Allam, A. A., 2El-shawadfy, A. M., 2Hassanein W. A. E., 2Hamza, E. H. A., 1Morad, E. A., 1El Shafei, M. A. E., and 3El Etriby, D. E.

1Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Infection Control Unit, Specialized Internal Medicine Hospital, Mansoura University, Egypt

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 0020155777174; 00201227989609

Abstract:

Background: Infection of burn wounds by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and remains one of the most challenging concerns for the burns unit. The aim of this study is purify and characterize the haemolysin produced by multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa PAO1 isolated from burn wounds.

Methods: Isolation and identification of P. aeruginosa from burns was done by standard bacteriological methods. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The haemolysin of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was purified by 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and separation by SDS-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. In vivo toxicity of the purified haemolysin was determined by intraperitoneal injection of Swiss albino mice, and in vitro toxin-antitoxin neutralization test was performed as previously described. Continue reading “Biochemical and immunological characterization of haemolysin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 isolated from burn wounds”

Lactobacillus sp and some fungi from termite nests on kolanut trees had mild antagonistic effects against pathogens isolated from paediatric patients

*1Afolami, O. I., 2Arogunjo, A. O., 2Oladunmoye, M. K., 3Owoyemi, O. O., 2Aribisala, J. O., 2Ajayi-Moses, O. B., 2Gabriel, P. O., 2Bhadmus, O. C., 2Wasiu, O. S., 2Arogundade, I. O., 2Aiyenuro, E. A., and 2Akinwumi, I. M.

1Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 49931, Houghton, MI, USA
2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
3Department of Microbiology, Achievers University, P. M. B. 1030, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Correspondence to: [email protected] or [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Residents in a rural suburb of Akure jettisoned antibiotic treatment; sought alternative cure to rising incidence of paediatric infections in 2017 from local herbal dealers, with many residents claiming of better treatment response. We investigated these claims since the local herbal formula included kola nut barks and ground termites.

Methodology: Microorganisms associated with termite nests on kola nut trees in the affected community were characterized and identified using standard techniques. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion was used to evaluate the susceptibility of the bacterial isolates to selected antibiotics. Plasmid profile of multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates (MDRIs) was determined by the Birnboim and Doly method while post plasmid curing antibiotic susceptibility was performed on the MDRIs against the same selected antibiotics. The microorganisms were also evaluated for possible antagonistic effects against Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from paediatric patients during the period of study using previously described methods. Continue reading “Lactobacillus sp and some fungi from termite nests on kolanut trees had mild antagonistic effects against pathogens isolated from paediatric patients”

Salinity induced apoptosis in food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bisporus

*Sharma, A., and Sharma, S. C.

Department of Biochemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 9915596237

Abstract:
Background: Food spoilage is one of the most serious challenges in agriculture, and food and beverage industry, which can lead to worldwide food economic loss. The crucial organoleptic species, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, is a highly resistant yeast fungus that can escape industrial quality check. They survive high salt environments by undergoing immediate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an important role in mediating adaptive responses to adverse environmental conditions. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prompted by salt stress is an early event in apoptosis, which in later stage is associated with prime genomic degradation.

Methodology: In this study, the tolerance mechanism to salt of Z. bisporus MTCC 4801 cells was investigated by serial dilution of exponential growth phase of the cells in 1.0M sodium chloride (NaCl) as salt stressor, and spotting on Yeast Peptone Dextrose Agar (YPDA) plates with incubation at 28oC for growth assessment and colony count. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to demonstrate characteristic ultrastructural hallmark features of apoptosis on Z. bisporus cells exposed to 1.0M NaCl at three different stress interval periods; 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Results: Growth of Z. bisporus cells on the YPDA plates was observed after 16 hours incubation period. Comparing the growths, Z. bisporus tolerated salt concentration below 1.0M NaCl but no growth was observed at 1.0M NaCl concentration indicating 1.0M NaCl to be limiting concentration for Z. bisporus growth. TEM analyses showed that treatment of Z. bisporus with 1.0M NaCl resulted in nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation, membrane blabbing, cytoskeletal distortion, and formation of apoptotic bodies. However, on prolonged stress span (90 and 120 minutes), the fungal cells were able to osmoadapt and repaired the damaged cells, resulting in lowering of the apoptotic ratio. Conclusion: These qualitative analyses contribute more insights regarding stress adaptive mechanisms in moderately halotolerant food spoilage yeast. Continue reading “Salinity induced apoptosis in food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bisporus”

Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria

1Anagha, L. I., 2Inegbenosun, C. U., and *3Inegbenosun, H.

1Department of Animal Enivronmental Biology, University of Benin,Benin City, Nigeria

2Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Periodontics, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Intestinal helminthic infections are generally common in children accounting for the largest disability adjusted life years (DALYs) of all the parasitic agents. In this study, we determined the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among secondary school students in a semi-urban community in Edo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study of 489 students from four secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria was conducted between December 2018 and July 2019. The schools were selected by stratified random sampling and all eligible students in each school were enrolled. Stool samples were collected from each student into sterile universal bottle and direct wet mount as well as formol-ether concentrated samples were examined under compound light microscope at the Animal and Environmental Biology Laboratory of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was administered to collect data on socio-demographic and potential risk factors for helminthic infection. Data were analysed with SPSS version 22.0 and associations between variables compared using Chi square or Fischer exact test, with p<0.05 as significant value. Continue reading “Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria”