Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seropositivity In African Patients Presenting To The Eye Clinic – A Preliminary To Prevention Of Occupational Exposure

CO Adeoti, AO Ashaye, MA Isawumi

 

Abstract

A seroprevalence study of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in new patients attending the eye clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria showed that twenty-nine patients 2.7%) were positive to HIV1. No patient was
positive to HIV 2. There were 21 males (72.4%) and 8 females (27.6%). The clinical diagnosis in the HIV positive patients was as shown in Table 1. Cataract was found in nine cases (31.03%), herpes zoster 4 (13.79%), glaucoma, optic atrophy (nonglaucomatous)
and corneal abscess were responsible for 3 (10.35%) of cases each; presbyopia, bacterial conjunctivtis 2 (6.89%) while maculopathy, orbital cellulitis and adherent leucoma were found in 1 (3.45%) patient each. These findings suggest that, patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be HIV seropositive and as such it may be
necessary to observe all rules relating to HIV transmission so as to prevent occupational exposure and cross infection in our clinics and operating theatres. Necessary measures to reduce occupational HIV infection and post exposure treatment if exposure occurs
are discussed.

Keywords: Nigeria, ophthalmological disorders, occupational exposure, cross infection.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 110-114

The Sensitivity Of Diazo Test In The Diagnosis Of Enteric Fevers

KB Tanyigna, JO Ogor

 

Abstract

To ascertain the sensitivity of Diazo (chemical) test in comparison to the Widal (serological) test in the diagnosis of enteric fevers, blood specimens from101 patients suspected of having enteric fevers were collected. 54.5% (55) of the patients were significantly seropositive. Fifteen urine specimens from these 55 seropositive patients were positive for Diazo tests, giving a sensitivity of about 27%. Salmonella typhi was the predominant serotype causing typhoid/paratyphoid fevers, followed by S. paratypi A; S. paratyphi C and S. paratyphi B respectively. Although Diazo test does not appear to be reliable, it could still be useful alongside with Widal agglutination test in endemic rural or urban areas where electricity and facilities are absent or inadequate for routine laboratory investigations.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 115-118

Proteinuria And Occurrence Of Onchocerca Volvulus Microfilariae In Skin, Urine And Blood Of Onchocerciasis Patients After Ivermectin Treatment In Adikpo, Benue State, Nigeria

KB Tanyigna, JA Onah, EU Amuta, CO Onwuliri, IO Ujah

 

Abstract

Fifty adult patients in Adikpo, Benue State, Nigeria having an average of 50 microfilaria/skin snip (mflss) and 2 microfilaria/milliliter (mflml) in skin and urine respectively were given a single treatment of Ivermectin at a dose rate between 150 – 200mg/kg. Five of the patients also had microfilariae in their blood. Seven days after this treatment, there was a decrease of the microfilaria from pretreatment level to 17.8% and 10% in the skin and urine respectively (i.e.82% and 90% clearance). There was 100% clearance in the blood. Trace proteinuria shown in 30 (60%) patients before treatment was increased to 45 (90%) patients after treatment. This study has revealed that Ivermectin has a great efficacy in clearing microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the skin, urine and blood of individuals. The increase in the number of patients with mild proteinuria after treatment and its implication require further investigation. It may not mean that the increase in protein content after treatment is due to Ivermectin.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 119-121