Acute Respiratory Infections in the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria

SK Ernest, A-WBR Johnson, OA Mokuolu, OT Adedoyin, JK Afolabi, CO Nwabueze, MA Ernest, CI Aderinola, AJ Alarape

 

Abstract

Background: ARI continues to be a leeding cause of death among children globally beyond the year 2000. Close 12 million children under the age of 5years die each year in the developing countries, mainly from preventable causes and approximately 2.28 million (19%) were due to acute respiratory infections (ARI). It therefore became necessary to assess the present status of the disease in Nigeria to mastermind workable plans for reducing the mortality and morbidity burden.
Methods: A designed pro-forma was used to collect and collate information from mothers or direct care givers of children at both hospital and community levels relating to family background, home setting, anthropometry, clinical presentation of ARI, previous medications, investigations, complications and outcomes of illness.
Results: A total of 163 children were recruited for the study. One hundred and six had moderate and severe form of ARI while 57 had mild form. The in-patients accounted for 15.2% of all the admission within the study period.All children were under 12 years of age with male preponderance. Fast breathing, Tarchypnoea, Cough and Fever were the leading ways of presentations. The immunization coverage of study population by various antigens in the EPI were poor. Majority of the hospital children had pre-consultation antibiotics while none of the children from the rural community had pre-recruitment antibiotics. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were the leading organisms isolated with good sensitivity to Quinolones, Gentamycin and Cephalosporins. Heart failure was the leading complications. Mortality was 12.3% among the hospitalized patient and none among the community children.
Conclusion: It was concluded that ARI is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children with opportunity for burden reduction.

Keywords: Acute Respiratory Infection, present outlook, burden

Download full journal in PDF below

Acute Respiratory Infections in the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria

 

Nosocomial Wound Infection amongst Post Operative Patients and their Antibiograms at Tertiary Care Hospital in India

S Mehta, N Sahni, VA Singh, R Bunger, T Garg, P Shinu

 

Abstract

Nosocomial infection constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. Increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogens associated with nosocomial infections also becomes a major therapeutic challenge for physicians. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify post operative bacterial infections in the patients developing surgical site infections at a tertiary University hospital in North India during July 2013 to Dec 2013.
Methods: One hundred and ninety six swabs/pus specimens from various types of surgical sites suspected to be infected on
clinical grounds were processed, by standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done by using
Kirby Baur disc diffusion technique.
Results: Of the one hundred and fifty-eight organisms isolated, the most common was Staphylococcus aureus (27.8 %), followed
by Escherchia coli (24.05 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.29 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.32%), Klebsiella oxytoca (5%),
Enterococcus (5.6%) and other miscellaneous gram negative rods (9.4%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (1.30%). About 50% of the
Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be methicillin resistant. In case of Escherichia coli, more than one-third of the isolates were found to be ESBL producers. The resistance to third generation cephalosporins and the quinolone ciprofloxacin was also quite high. Other isolates also showed a very high level of antibiotic resistance.
Conclusion: In addition to the economic burden for antibiotic treatment, such infections for multi-resistant organisms are a serious threat to our surgical patients. To prevent these happenings, there is ar urgent need to adopt basic principles of asepsis and sterilization and to make judicious use of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics and determine current antimicrobial resistance to commonly prescribed drugs.

Keywords: Wound infection; microorganisms; anti-microbial sensitivity

Download full journal in PDF below

Nosocomial Wound Infection amongst Post Operative Patients and their Antibiograms at Tertiary Care Hospital in India

Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Samples from Mowe Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

SA Adenodi, NE Oyejide, SO Fayemi, F Ayoade

 

Abstract

A measured Escherichia coli level in drinking water is perhaps the most popular means of determining human health risks globally. Water samples from wells, boreholes and sachet water, the 3 predominant sources of drinking water in the study area were evaluated for the presence of bacteria, particularly E coli. Bacteria isolation was done using standard microbiological procedures while identification of isolates was done using cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Enumeration of standard plate count was done by spread plate method on serially diluted water samples. The prevalence of E coli in the water samples and the activities of cefoxitin, fusidic acid, meticillin, penicillin and vancomycin against the E coli isolates and the susceptibility testing data were obtained using Kirby Bauer method. A total of six bacteria species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated from water samples obtained from borehole, well and sachet water samples in the study area. The mean bacteria counts ranged between 3.74 x 104 to 1.65 x 102 CFU/ml for well and borehole water and 0.81 to 5.1 x 102 CFU/ml for sachet water samples. Out of the 6 E coli strains representing 27.2% of the isolated bacteria species; two, representing 33.3% of the strains
showed moderate to high resistance against meticillin. These findings are expected to motivate public health stakeholders in the study location to attempt reducing the growing resistance of pathogenic bacteria in the environment, and their ecotoxic effects.

Key words: antibiotic resistance, meticillin, water quality, E. coli

 

Un niveau d’Escherichia coli mesurées dans l’eau potable est peut-être le moyen le plus populaire de la détermination des risques pour la santé humaine à l’échelle mondiale. Des échantillons d’eau de puits, de forages et de l’eau de sachet, les trois principales sources d’eau potable dans la zone d’étude ont été évalués pour la présence de bactéries, en particulier E. coli. L’isolement de bactéries a été effectué en utilisant des procédures microbiologiques standard tandis que l’identification des isolats a été effectuée à l’aide des caractéristiques culturelles, morphologiques et biochimiques. Énumération de nombre de plaque standard a été effectuée par la méthode de la plaque de propagation sur des échantillons d’eau dilués en série. La prévalence de E. coli dans les échantillons d’eau et les activités de la céfoxitine, l’acide fusidique, la méticilline, la pénicilline et
de la vancomycine contre les isolats de E. coli et les données de tests de sensibilité ont été obtenus en utilisant la méthode de Kirby Bauer. Un total de six espèces de bactéries :Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus,  Enterobacter aerogenes ont été isolés à partir d’échantillons d’eau provenant de puits, de forage et des échantillons d’eau de sachet dans la zone d’étude. Les bactéries, les valeurs moyennes se situaient entre 3,74 x 104 à 1,65 x 102 UFC / ml pour le bien et l’eau de forage et de 0,81 à 5,1 x 102 UFC / ml pour les échantillons d’eau de sachet. Sur les 6 souches d’E.coli représentant 27,2% des espèces de bactéries isolées ; deux (33,3 %) des souches ont montré une résistance modéré à haute à la pénicilline. Ces résultats devraient inciter les intervenants en santé publique dans le lieu de l’étude de tenter de réduire la résistance croissante des bactéries  pathogènes dans l’environnement et leurs effets écotoxiques.

Mots clés: Résistance aux antibiotiques, pénicilline, qualité l’eau, E. coli.

Download full journal in PDF below

Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Samples from Mowe Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria