Antistaphylococcal metabolite from Aureobasidium pullulans: production and characterization

NE Kalantar, RL Deopurkar, BP Kapadnis



Aureobasidium pullulans (NI.3) isolated from the leaves of Dracaena reflexa variegate produced intracellular antimicrobial metabolite the yield of which was 700-800 U from about 0.7-0.85 g of dry biomass. The antistaphyloccocal metabolite showed strong activity against different Staphylococcus spp. The MICs ranged from 1.25 to 3.6 U/ml. The metabolite was only moderately sensitive to temperature. After keeping at 400C and 700C for one hour it lost only 20% and 60% of its activity respectively. However, it was completely inactivated upon exposure to 1210C for 20 min. The antistaphyloccocal metabolite was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents and enzymes like trypsin, proteinase K, lipase and lysozyme. The activity was fairly stable over a wide range of pH (5.7–8). When S. aureus was grown in the medium in presence of antimicrobial metabolite (10 U/ml) the number of CFU started to decrease. However, most of the cells had lost their viability after nine hours exposure. A slower killing of the S. aureus was noted when cells were kept in buffer containing antimicrobial metabolite (5 U/ml). Antimicrobial metabolite induced efflux of potassium ions from cells of Staphylococcus indicating the channel forming activity.

KeywordsAureobasidium, antistaphylococcal activity, potassium efflux

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 177-187

Species of fungi associated with skin diseases of different age groups in plateau state, Nigeria

AO Ogaraku, CIC Ogbonna, VC Nwokedi



A survey was carried out on the species of fungi associated with skin diseases of thirty subjects of different age groups in Plateau State, Nigeria. The age groups included 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 and 41-50 years, accounting for 27%, 38%, 23%, 8% and 4% of total number of individuals with fungal infections respectively. The skin diseases involved included ringworms, dermatitis, burns, impetigo and boils. The fungal isolates included Microsporium canis, M. audouinii, M. ferrugineum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. megninii and Aspergillus niger, with frequencies of occurrence in the skin lesions being 80%, 60%, 40%, 60%, 60% and 20% respectively. The implications of the results are discussed.

Keywords: fungi, skin disease, age groups, Plateau State

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 188-191

Effect of trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei mixed infection on the pattern of haematological changes in murine trypanosmosis

JN Abenga, SA Sands, OGC Ezebuiro



The effect of Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei mixed infection on the pattern of haematological changes was demonstrated in a rat model. At the end of 21 days post infection (PI), anaemia which was characterised by drop in the packed cell volume (PCV), was found to be significantly (P<0.05) severer in rats with mixed infection than those infected with T. congolense or T. brucei. Similar pattern of drop in the total white blood cell (WBC), differential WBC, and platelet counts was observed in the group with mixed infection. It was concluded that even though T. congolense and T. brucei may cause milder haematological changes in animals compared to T. vivax, mixed infection by these parasites may cause severer haematological changes in the natural hosts.

Keywords: mixed infections, pattern of haematological changes, rats, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 193-197

Screening for Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural cohort of pregnant women in Nigeria

O Ojurongbe, OA Adeyeba, AO Olowu, AO Olowe, OO Opaleye, BE Egbewale



Studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among 37 pregnant Nigerian women in llie, Osun state, Nigeria and to determine the effects on haemoglobin concentration and clinical symptoms. Out of the 37 pregnant women seen over a period of nine months, 14 (37%) had urinary schistosomiasis, with a mean egg count of 82.5 eggs/10 mls of urine. The mean haemoglobin values in women with schistosomiasis mothers were lower than in women negative for the parasite but the differences were not stastically significant (P>0.05). Abdominal pain was the predominant complaint among the women seen in with 71% of the infected women while other complaints were dizziness, fever and headache. This study shows that schistosomiasis is prevalent among pregnant women in rural area and could contribute to anaemia and abdominal pain commonly seen in pregnant women in our environment.

Keywords: schistosomiasis, pregnant women, abdominal pain, haemoglobin values, Nigeria

Bacteraemia and acute phase proteins in Nigerian women with spontaneous recurrent abortion

OG Arinola, KS Adedapo, OE Adebiyi, AO Adeniji



C-reactive protein, alpha–2-macroglobulin, transferrin and bacteraemia were studied in women with recurrent abortion and compared with the pregnant women as well as non-pregnant women with no history of abortion (controls). The results showed a significantly reduced level of transferrin but significantly raised levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein in the pregnant women with recurrent abortion (P+R) compared with pregnant women without recurrent abortion (P-R) or the controls. Four genera of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Klebsiella species and Clostridium perfringes) were isolated from the blood of women with recurrent abortion while there were 2 genera of bacteria (S. aureus and Strept. Agalactiae) were isolated from the blood of pregnant women without recurrent abortion. This study had shown that inflammation and bacterial infection contribute to spontaneous recurrent abortion.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 203-207

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Detection of chlamydia antigen in cervical specimens from antenatal clinic attendees in Benin City, Nigeria

JO Isibor, D Ugbomoiko, GO Nwobu, AO Ekundayo, IB Enweani, GRA Okogun



Four hundred consenting antenatal clinic attendees were serologically screened for evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Infection with this organism is underreported in many countries including Nigeria. In the antenatal clinic setting in most developing countries, antigen detection has found widespread application in diagnosis due to lesser demands of cost, expertise, and time required to obtain results. In this study, chlamydia antigens were serologically detected using an immunochromatographic method (Hexagon Chlamydia Rapid Test Kit manufactured and described by Human Gesellschaft fur Biochemica und Diagnostcal MbH-Germany). Overall, 40 (13.3%) of the 300 women screened had chlamydia antigens in their endocervical specimens while 100 women (control subjects) were negative for chlamydial antigens. There seems to be an association between chlamydial infection and vaginal discharge, abortion and infertility. We highly recommend the necessity to include chlamydia screening tests in antenatal health care in Nigeria to prevent unpleasant sequelae.

Keywords: chlamydial antigens, endocervical specimen, antenatal women, Benin City, Nigeria

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 208-211

Effect of storage on bacteriological quality of borehole water

AB Olayemi, S Awe, KIT Eniola, IB Osanoto, A Adegoke, GO Abolade



The effect of storage on the bacteriological quality of water from a borehole was investigated. Water samples drawn from the borehole were stored in covered tap-fitted buckets of different colours at room temperature. Physicochemical parameters (pH and suspended solids contents) as well as bacteriological parameters (total bacterial and total coliform counts) were monitored over 12 days of storage. Generally, there was an increase in pH during storage. Their suspended solid content reduced by 75.0%, 92.3% and 40.0% during storage in the purple, blue and transparent buckets respectively. A total of eleven bacterial species were isolated at onset but only three of them: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris survived till the twelfth day of storage. There was also reduction in the total bacteria count by 82.5%, 83.35%, and 58.82% from an initial 17 x 104 CFU/ml during storage in the purple, blue and transparent buckets respectively. The total coliform count decreased by 99.18%, 82.35% and 91.36% in purple, blue and transparent buckets respectively from an initial 1100 MPN/100ml during the period of storage. The significance of storage as a means of enhancing water purification was discussed and suggestion provided on proper storage of water intended for drinking.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 213-218

Bacteriological quality of water samples in Osogbo Metropolis

OA Olowe, O Ojurongbe, OO Opaleye, OT Adedosu, RA Olowe, KIT Eniola



The bacteriological qualities of samples of some sachet water, tap water and well water were examined. Some physicochemical parameters (pH and suspended solids) indicative of water quality as well as the total bacterial and total coliform counts were examined. The pH of the samples range between 6.5 and 7.2. Suspended solids content ranged between 3.3 and 18.5 x 10-2 g/ml. The total bacterial counts ranged between 7.0 to 12.0 x 101 CFU/ml for sachet water, 0 to 20 CFU/ml for tap water and 2.0 to 20 x 103 CFU/ml for well water. The coliform count (MPN) ranged between 0 to 1 coliform/100ml for sachet water, 0 to150 coliform/100 ml for tap water and 1200 to 1800 coliform/100ml for well water. A total of six bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Their distribution among the samples and the public health implication are discussed. The well water samples examined were found to fall short of the WHO recommendation for drinking water, while the tap water was adjudged fit for consumption.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 219-222

Evaluation of the 48 hour, 72 hour and 96 hour readings of tuberculin test for the screening of tuberculosis in cattle

SIB Cadmus, OG Arinola



In this study, a cattle farm with a history of tuberculosis was examined over a period of three years to determine the usefulness of reading tuberculin tests (single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) and single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test (SICCTT)) at 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs intervals in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. On the onset, SICTT was conducted on a total of 145 cattle, 52 (35.9%) of these were positive at 48 hours, 56 (38.6%) at 72 hours and 65 (44.8%) at 96 hours (X2=1.54, p=0.46). After one year, 171 cattle were screened using SICCTT, 10 (5.8%) animals were positive at 48 hours, 12 (7.0%) at 72 hours and 14 (8.2%) at 96 hours (X2=0.67, p=0.72). During the third test conducted almost one year after the second test, 136 cattle were screened using SICCTT, 13 (9.6%) were positive at 48 hours, 17 (12.5%) at 72 hours and 17 (12.5%) at 96 hours (X2 = 0.68, p=0.71). With the pattern of this result, there may be need to review the policy which gave the 72 hr reading a preference over the 96 hr reading of tuberculin test.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology<?I> Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 223-226

Infant immunization coverage in difficult-to-reach area of Lagos metropolis

A Adeiga, SA Omilabu, RA Audu, FA Sanni, GF Lakehinde, O Balogun, O Olagbaju



A retrospective survey of infant immunization coverage was conducted among 210 children aged 12 to 23 months in difficult-to-reach coastal suburb of Lagos, Nigeria. This was to assess immunization coverage for BCG, DPT, OPV and measles vaccination and to investigate reasons for failure to be immunized and evaluate the drop out rate as well as missed opportunities. An EPI cluster method was used. Questionnaires were administered with WHO cluster form for infant immunization. Recall history and card records of immunization were the tools used. The result showed that 82 (39%) of the 210 children assessed were not immunized, 84 (40%) were partially immunized and only 44 (21%) were fully immunized. At one year of age, only 21 (10%) of the children completed their immunization. Observation of the follow up of vaccination showed that 65.5% of 127 children who started BCG vaccination dropped out as at the time of receiving measles vaccination. Reasons advanced for failure to immunize or complete immunization of the children included obstacles in 47.7%, lack of information 40.7% and lack of motivation in 11.6%. These factors contributed to missed opportunities. Only 9 (11%) of 82 children not vaccinated against measles attributed non vaccination to illnesses. Lack of health facilities and the terrain that is difficult to reach contributed to low coverage. Also, low literacy level, poor maternal health education, poor socioeconomic status and poor advocacy to community leaders and lack of commitment of health workers contributed to low coverage. For immunization coverage to improve in this area, these factors must be addressed.

Keywords: infant, immunization, coverage, antigens, advocacy

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 227-231