Malaria prevention in the Buea health district in Cameroon: factors influencing Mosquito bed net use in households

FHL Kamga, P Nde-Fon, C. Morfaw, NDS Nsagha

 

Abstract

Background: Insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs), though proven to be effective in preventing malaria will have little impact unless people sleep under them. Several studies have shown that owned ITNs are usually not used and that ITN use is influenced by several factors that vary between communities.
Objective: To investigate the factors influencing the use of mosquito bed nets in households in the Buea Health District (BHD) in Cameroon.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling included 420 households from 35 sites. Questionnaires adapted from the Malaria Indicator Survey were used. CSPro 4.1 and Epi info 3.5.3 were used to create database and analyze respectively.
Results: ITN ownership in the BHD was high (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.6%-94.9%) but ITN use was less than average (41.2%; 95% CI: 39.2%-43.3%). ITN use was least likely in the age group 5-15 years (P<0.01), in educated individuals (P<0.01) and in households with less than one ITN for two persons (P<0.01). White ITNs were less likely to be used (P<0.01). Conclusion: There is a gap between ITN ownership and use in the malaria holoendemic BHD and ITN use is associated with age of individual, level of education, colour of ITNs and household net density. Use of the highly owned ITNs could be increased by targeting the least protected 5-15 years age group and schooling individuals; by promoting school-based education on ITN use.

Keywords: Insecticide-treated nets, malaria, Buea Health District

Download full journal in PDF below

Malaria prevention in the Buea health district in Cameroon factors influencing Mosquito bed net use in households

Continue reading “Malaria prevention in the Buea health district in Cameroon: factors influencing Mosquito bed net use in households”

Profile of septic work up among patients admitted into the intensive care unit in University of Abuja teaching hospital Gwagwalada, Abuja

T. Yunusa, A.M. Adeoye, O.A. Akitoye

 

Abstract

Background: Several infectious agents are responsible for sepsis in all age groups presenting with fever which can have devastating consequences if not adequately treated. Sepsis may arise from bacteria, fungi and viral origin but are localized in particular organ or system with systemic affectation. Febrile illness is a leading reason for admission to the intensive care unit of hospitals in the tropics and these patients comes mostly from inpatients rather than from outpatients. Diagnostic apparatus needed for sepsis work up are usually not available in most cases and the data regarding septic work up are very scanty. Therefore, this research set out to determine the pattern of isolates from septic work-up among patients admitted to the intensive care unit in Abuja.
Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Sixty-four consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit with symptoms such as fever were involved in the study in a view to determine the septic state of the patients. Samples were collected. Blood culturing was performed using the BACTEC 9050® system and biochemical analytical profile index were used for identification and confirmation of bacterial isolates.
Results: The mean age of the patients admitted to ICU was 40.9±3.2 with the highest proportion within the age range of 31-40 years accounting for 31.7% of the patients enrolled and the lowest proportion being 10-20 years group accounting for 5.0%.Out of the 64 patients investigated in the ICU 60 patients had clinical and positive cultures with an overall positive and negative infection rate of 93.8% and 6.3% respectively. From the positive cultures yields 86.7% were bacteremia and 13.3% were fungaemia. Multiple infections were observed among the male patients, Multi-drug resistance bacteria were observed among Klebsiella pneumonia, E. coli and P. aeroginosa isolates.
Conclusion: Bacterial and fungal isolates were found in this study but increased rate of polymicrobial isolation and nosocomial infections calls for concern.

Key words: Profile of infectious agents, sepsis, fever, septic work up, Abuja

Download full journal in PDF below

Profile of septic work up among patients admitted into the intensive care unit in University of Abuja teaching hospital Gwagwalada, Abuja

Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from apparently healthy individuals in Malete, Kwara state, Nigeria

M. I Bale, S. K. Babatunde, M. R. Adedayo, A. E. Ajiboye, A. T. Ajao

 

Abstract

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common and continuously growing cause of nosocomial and community-acquired staphylococcal infections around the world. Screening for colonization with MRSA is a major aspect of control and limiting the spread of infections cause by this organism. We investigated the carriage of MRSA among apparently healthy individuals in four rural villages: Eleburu, Tapa, Atere and Apo all around semi-urban town-Malete, in Moro Local Government of Kwara State, Nigeria.
Methods: Nasal swabs were collected from volunteered individuals and were cultured on mannitol salt agar and blood agar for isolation and identification of Staph aureus using standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility to cefoxitin disc (30 ag) was used to determine MRSA status of the isolates. Molecular method was used to detect the gene responsible for resistance among MRSA isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test to commonly prescribed antibiotics was carried out using discs diffusion method.
Results: Total number of individuals carrying Staph aureus in their nostrils was 42 (37.2 %). Antibiotics susceptibility profile of Staph aureusisolates showed 100 % resistance to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cloxacillin and augmentin, and were 87 %, 81 %, 69 % and 23.8 % and 19 % resistant to tetracycline, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ofloxacin and gentamicin respectively. A total of 6 (14%) Community –Acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates were recovered from individuals living in these villages. Molecular method detected muc and mecA genes in all the 6 (100%) CA-MRSA isolates and lukS-lukF was detected in 3 (50%) of the isolates.
Conclusion: Detection of CA-MRSA strains among these rural dweller indicates that they are harbouring enhance virulence organism that may manifest a more severe disease condition. The danger associated with high prevalence of multidrug resistant Staph aureus and CAMRSA; and its consequential effects of poor drug administration in Nigeria was discussed. There is need to establish a more strict legislation and enforcement on drug control; and a body that would monitor production and appropriate use of antibiotics in the Nigeria.

KEYWORDS: CA-MRSA, Staph aureus, Antibiotics, Rural Villages and Molecular Characterization

Download full journal in PDF below

Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from apparently healthy individuals in Malete, Kwara state, Nigeria