Prevalence of septicaemia and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates at the University Teaching Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon

H.L.F Kamga, A.L Njunda, P.E Nde, J.C.N Assob, D.S Nsagha, P Weledji

 

Abstract

Bloodstream infections are important causes of mortality and morbidity. Rapid empiric antibiotic therapy is often needed. Knowledge of epidemiological data of common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern is needed for rapid therapy. This study was aimed at determining the common causes of septicaemia and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the University Teaching Hospital, Yaoundé. Blood samples were collected and cultured aerobically. Isolates were identified using bacteriological and biochemical methods and antibiotic sensitivity was done using the Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Results showed that of the 396 patients examined 112 (28.3%) had septicaemia. Children below the age of 15 years constituted the greatest percentage of infected subjects (63.4%) followed by patients aged between 16-30 years (10.7%) (P < 0.05). The highest incidence of septicaemia were from medicine (8.95‰), followed by paediatrics (7.04‰), surgery (6.46 ‰), out-patients (5.79‰), neonatology (5.12‰), obstetrics and gynaecology (5.05‰) and emergency (2.05‰) wards. The overall incidence of septicaemia was 5.79 per 1000 admissions. Gram-positive bacteria were encountered more often than gram negative bacteria (56.2% versus 43.8%, P<0.05). Among the gram-positive bacteria, 52 (82.5%) were Staphylococci; 6 (9.5%) were Streptococcus species; while 5 (7.9%) were unidentified grampositive bacteria. Among gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriacea 39 (79.6%) and non-fermenting bacteria 10 (20.1 %) were more frequent. Staphylococci were generally sensitive to Minocyclin and Rifampin (90%) while Enterobacteriaceae were most sensitive to Cefoxitin (71%) and Aztreonam (74%). Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Salmonella typhi are the leading causes of bacteraemia among patients attending the University Teaching Hospital, Yaoundé

Keywords: Septicaemia, antibiotic sensitivity, Cameroon

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Prevalence of septicaemia and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates at the University Teaching Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Hand hygiene amongst dental professionals in a tertiary dental clinic

J.J Omogbai, C.C Azodo, A.O Ehizele, A Umoh

 

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate hand washing attitude and practices among Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in a Nigerian Tertiary Dental Clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital was conducted between February and March 2010. Data collection tool was a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire, which elicited information on demography, handwashing practices, material used for handwashing, methods ofdrying hands after washing, attitudes towards prevention of spread of infection by handwashing measures in dental practice, barrier to regular hand washing, information need on handwashing and mode in which they would desire to receive the needed information. Results: One-quarter (25.7%) of the respondents washes their hands before wearing gloves and 98.1% wash their hands when they are visibly soiled. Less than half (46.7%) washed their hand when the worn gloves are torn. Majority strongly agreed that hand washing helps to prevent transmission of infection to patients (91.4%), health workers (92.4%) and health workers family members (89.5%). The main barriers to regular hand hygiene were inadequate facilities, forgetfulness and lack of time. About 69.5% desired more information on hand hygiene with the most indicated area of information needs being the indications and steps in hand washing in form of seminars and pamphlets. Conclusion: This study revealed positive attitude to hand washing, inadequate hand washing practices and poor monitoring of hand hygiene in the health institution. The studied dental professionals however know that hand washing plays an important role in the prevention of cross infection.

Keywords: hand hygiene, dental professionals, tertiary, dental clinic, infection control

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Hand hygiene amongst dental professionals in a tertiary dental clinic