Comparative Analysis Of Antibiotic Resistance And R-Plasmids Of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Human And Dog Samples

SO Akano, OA Daini, M Ojo, SI Smith, KA Akinsade

 

Abstract

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics constitutes a major cause of failure in the treatment of bacterial infections. The genetic exchange of plasmids containing antibiotic resistant determinants between bacteria is believed to play a critical role in the evolution of antibiotics resistant bacteria and this has been shown in S. aureus. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the nature of plasmids that determine antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from man and animal. Thirty multiply drug resistant S. aureus isolates from a total of 147 apparently healthy humans and dogs, as well as from clinical cases were determined by antibiotic susceptibility test using the standard disc agar diffusion method. Plasmid isolation was carried out by the alkaline lysis method of Birnboim and Dolly. Electrophoresis as well as the transformation experiment was done.
The result showed that no particular sensitivity pattern or plasmid profile  can be ascribed to either human or animal sources of isolates. Two isolates from a domestic dog and its owner (human) were observed to have identical plasmid profile and almost the same antibiogram. 23.130 kbp and 25.119 kbp plasmids that were responsible for amoxycilin resistance were transferred. In conclusion, the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance by S. aureus in our locality was found to be partly plasmid mediated. Plasmid analysis, in conjunction with the antibiogram is valuable in differentiating multiple resistant S. aureus.
Furthermore, domestic pet animals were found to be reservoirs and potential risk factors in the transfer of multiply antibiotic resistant S. aureus and their R-plasmids to antibiotic susceptible S. aureus and other bacteria.

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Lassa Fever: Another Infectious Menace

GM Adewuyi, A Fowotade, BT Adewuyi

 

Abstract

Nigeria is presently suffering from another Lassa fever epidemic. This was confirmed in the statement of the Minister of Health of the Federation in which he said, “There has been an upsurge in the reported cases of Lassa fever since the beginning of this year, especially in the Federal Capital Territory and its environs. Within two weeks, 12 cases with five deaths due to the disease were recorded. 25 contacts are confirmed by laboratory
investigations to have been infected, including 4 health staff working in the National Hospital, Abuja.”1 Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the town of Lassa in Borno state, Nigeria.2 It is
endemic in West African countries, and causes 300,000 cases annually with 5000 deaths.3 Lassa fever epidemics occur in Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and the Central African Republic.4 Lassa virus, the agent of the disease is a member of the Arenaviridae family. The virus is pleomorphic with single-stranded and bisegmented RNA genome.3 Its primary host is Natal Multimammate Mouse (Mastomys natalensis). Transmission to man occurs via exposure to the rat excrement through respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts5, exposure of broken skin or mucus membrane to infected material, direct contact, sexually and transplacentally. The prevalence of antibodies to the virus is 8-22%9 in Sierra Leone, 4-55% in Guinea,12 and 21% in Nigeria.13 The
disease is mild or asymptomatic in 80% of infected people, but 20% have a severe multisystemic disease. Clinical features are difficult to differentiate from that of other viral haemorrhagic fevers  and common febrile illness such as Malaria, Typhoid fever and so on. Definitive diagnosis is by viral isolation, Antigen and Antibody detection and Reverse
Transcriptase PCR. Treatment is with Ribavirin, an antiviral agent. No vaccine is currently available. Prevention is by keeping rats away from homes.

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Prevalence Of Bacterial Vaginosis In Women With Vaginal Symptoms In South Province, Rwanda

CM Muvunyi, TC Hernandez

 

Abstract

This is a prospective study of 297 Consecutive High Vaginal Swab (HVS) specimen from patients with vaginal symptoms at the laboratory of Butare University Teaching Hospital, South Province, Rwanda. The aim of the
study was to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and the role of some micro-organisms and laboratory indices associated with it. The age range was 16-57 years with a mean of 30.8 years. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 17.8% and the highest percentage of 52.8 % (28) found in the age group of 21-30 years compared with the lowest percentage of 1.9% (1) in the age group less than 20 years. Almost half of patients with trichomoniasis were found to have bacterial vaginosis (P<0.05). The demonstration Clue cells in wet mount was found in significantly higher numbers (90.5%) in women with bacterial vaginosis (P<0.001, positive predictive value 90.4%) while low sensitivity and positive predictive value were seen for vaginal discharge for detecting
infection with bacterial vaginosis ( p> 0.05, positive predictive value 26.0%). Bacterial vaginosis is common among women with vaginal symptoms in Rwanda as showed by gram stain examination. Further research into this pathology in other Rwandan women populations is needed.