Prevalence and immune status of HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women

PM Lar, VK Pam, PB Christopher, L Gwamzhi, JD Mawak

 

Abstract

HIV/HBV co-infection places patients at high risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality and the interaction of the two viruses can further complicate treatment. Pregnant women are especially at high risk for increased morbidity and mortality due to infection, and information about HIV/HBV co-infection in pregnant women is scanty. This study examined the occurrence of HBV antibodies in HIV-1 positive pregnant women and the relationship to  Ante-retroviral therapy (ART) and other demographic characteristics. Blood samples were collected from 135 HIV pregnant positive women who were either on ART or Not, from May – June, 2008 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) and the Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH). Presence of hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) antigen in serum was determined using Antec strips (Antec diagnostics UK) and their immunologic status were determined by measuring the CD4+ counts using SL_3 cyFlow counter (Partec, Germany) . Sixteen 16 (11.8%) of the women examined were seropositive for Hepatitis B virus. Occupation was significantly associated with the prevalence of the hepatitis co-infection in the population examined (8.8% of house wives and 5.5% of business women had  co-infection, p<0.05). The immunologic status (CD4+ of most of the HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women (81.5%) was low (below 300 cells/mm3) although all were on Anti retroviral therapy. The 11.8% prevalence rate reported in this study confirms the endemicity of HBV /HIV co-infection in Nigeria, and this supports the calls for screening for Hepatitis B as a routine in antenatal care.

Keywords: HIV, Hepatitis, Co-infection, CD4, Pregnant women

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Prevalence and immune status of HIVHBV co-infected pregnant women

Risk factors for Hepatitis C virus antibody seropositivity among children with sickle cell anaemia in Ilorin, Nigeria

CE Onuchukwu, A Ojuawo, SK Ernest

 

Abstract

Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) resulting to a chronic hepatitis. Chronic HCV infection constitutes a serious public health challenge in Nigeria where donor blood is not routinely screened for HCV. Patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are considered a subset of the population at higher
risk of acquiring the virus, due to their frequent needs for transfusion of blood and its products. Other risk factors like scarification markings, tattooing, and circumcision also predispose children to acquiring this infection. However, the magnitude of HCV infection has not been adequately measured in our general population and specific data on HCV in SCA patients are scanty, hence a prospective case controlled study to determine the risk factors that predispose to the acquisition of hepatitis C Virus infection.
Objective: To determine the risk factors for Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Seropositivity among transfused children with SCA in Ilorin.
Subjects and Method: Eighty two transfused SCA children aged 6 months to 14 years were recruited consecutively from February 2008 to January 2009 while eighty four non transfused SCA children of the same age range recruited over the same period served as controls. Hepatitis C virus Antibody screening was done using a second generation ELISA method. Information on the study population were collected by use of a pretested questionnaire by the investigator.
Results: There was a positive correlation between numbers of units of blood transfused and seropositivity. Those who had three or more units of blood had a prevalence rate of more than 50%. There was a strong correlation between seropositivity and scarification marks in both subjects and controls (p=0.001 and 0.02 respectively). Other plausible risk factors for hepatitis C infection tested in this study included circumcision and sharing of clippers which showed no statistically significant difference. No cases of tattooing, drug abuse, needle sharing or sexual activities were seen in this study.
Conclusion: Transfused SCA patients belong to a high risk group for hepatitis C virus infection compared to the non transfused population. The risk of acquisition increases with higher number of transfusions and scarifications marks.

Key words: Hepatitis C virus, Sickle cell anaemia, Risk factors, Blood transfusion.

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Risk factors for Hepatitis C virus antibody seropositivity among children with sickle cell anaemia in Ilorin, Nigeria

 

Prevalence of Rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin-g and -m in pregnant women attending two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria

OT Obijimi, AB Ajetomobi, WP Sule, DO Oluwayelu

 

Abstract

Background: Rubella is a self-limiting disease that causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when rubella virus (RV) infects women in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Objective: To assess a population of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria for anti-RV IgG and IgM in order to determine the proportions susceptible to the viral infection and infectious to their fetuses.
Method: Ninety consenting pregnant women were consecutively recruited and aseptically bled for the study. The sera were screened with commercial ELISA kits for anti-rubella virus IgG and IgM. Due to the controls and calibrators included in the tests, the IgG test was performed on 89 sera while all 90 samples were screened for IgM.
Results: Of the 89 pregnant women tested for anti-RV IgG, 86 (96.6%) were positive with protective serum concentrations of the antibody. Only six (6.7%, 95% CI: 1.5-11.8%, n = 90) women were positive for anti-RV IgM with 5 (5.6%, 95% CI: 0.8-10.3%) having both anti-RV IgG and IgM. Overall, three (3.4%) of the women were susceptible to RV infection, one (1.1%) of these in the first trimester of gestation was probably infectious.
Conclusion: Majority of the pregnant women had protective levels of anti-RV IgG antibody although susceptibility to rubella as well as level of infectiousness were low. Intensification of rubella immunization of all females of child-bearing age in Osun and Oyo States is advocated.

Keywords: Prevalence, Rubella, Antibodies, Pregnant women, Southwestern Nigeria.

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Prevalence of Rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin-g and -m in pregnant women attending two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria