Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without Vaccination History

MO Adewumi, RB Olusanya, BA Oladunjoye, JA Adeniji

 

Abstract

Rubella is a vaccine-preventable viral infection, its aetiologic agent; rubella virus was identified as human teratogen capable of causing a spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, significant proportion of the population remains susceptible to rubella infection in developing countries. More significantly, such developing countries including Nigeria have not demonstrated adequate commitment to preventive vaccination; a panacea for intervention. Consequently, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of anti-rubella IgG among pregnant women to ascertain the proportion of susceptible population. A total of 273 consenting rubella vaccine naïve antenatal clinic attendees aged 15-42 years (Median age = 28 years) were randomly selected and their sera analyzed for qualitative and quantitative anti-rubella IgG detection. Overall, 244/273 (89.4%) pregnant women enrolled in this study had protective level (Titre = >10 IU/mL) of anti-rubella IgG (Median Titre = 165 IU/mL; Range = <10 – >250 IU/mL), while, 29/273 (10.6%) of the study population lack protective antibody titre ( OD = <10 IU/mL). Results confirm previous reports of exposure, infection, and continuous circulation of rubella virus in Nigeria. It emphasizes the need for improved  and continuous surveillance for rubella and CRS cases, prompt vaccination of vulnerable populations, and evaluation of health policies to achieve immunization and ultimately ensure control/elimination of rubella virus in Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: Rubella, Pregnancy, Antibody, Congenital Rubella Syndrome, Nigeria

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Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without Vaccination History

Isolation of Enterovirus from Feacal Samples of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Maiduguri, Nigeria

BS Oderinde, MM Baba, MU Nwodo, J Ladan, PE Ghamba, MT Akinola, AM Kadai

 

Abstract

In this study, 150 patients were recruited out of which 63(42%) were male while 87(58%) were female subjects. Patients with type 1 diabetes were 2(1.3%), those with type 2 were 142(94.7%) while those with GDM were 4(4%). Only one sample from type 2 was positive by virus isolation and identified to be Echovirus 1 and 21 by microneutralization tests as described in WHO polio laboratory manual, 2004. It has been demonstrated that enterovirus infections were significantly more common in recently diagnosed diabetic patients, compared to control subjects. The question if enterovirus could cause beta cell damage and diabetes mellitus has become more and more relevant when recent studies have provided new evidence supporting this scenario especially in type 1 diabetes. This is an important issue since it opens the possibility to develop new, preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight the disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate if enterovirus can be isolated from the stool samples of diabetic patients as a study.

Key words: Isolation, enteroviruses, faeces, diabetes mellitus, patient

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Isolation of Enterovirus from Feacal Samples of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Maiduguri, Nigeria

CD4 Changes in HAART-Naive HIV Positive Pregnant Women on HAART: Low Resource Setting Experience

AO Adeniji, MA Muhibi

 

Abstract

PURPOSE: PMTCT interventions, especially initiation of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection by reducing both peripartal and neonatal HIV infections, but the pattern of the immunologic responses of these pregnant women to HAART remains speculative. It is hoped from this study, to describe the pattern of immunologic response of naïve, HIV positive pregnant women on their first initiation on HAART. METHODS: This study described the pattern of CD4 changes observed in freshly diagnosed 126 HIV positive pregnant women, stratified into the trimesters of pregnancy and commenced on HAART (Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine) for a period of 2 months in pregnancy. CD4 counts were determined at point of recruitment and monthly thereafter using a Parteccytometer counter (Cyflow(R)). Neonatal outcome was also described. RESULTS: Our findings suggest better immunologic response and fewer neonatal infectionsin group of naïve women initiated on HAART while in the first 26 weeks of pregnancy and lesser response in those commenced in the third trimester of pregnancy.
CONCLUSION: Concerted efforts should be directed towards the initiation of HAART prophylaxis before end of 2nd trimester of pregnancy.

Keywords: PMTCT, pregnant women, HAART, CD4 changes

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CD4 Changes in HAART-Naive HIV Positive Pregnant Women on HAART Low Resource Setting Experience