Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria

EO Nwankwo, AM Lawal, M Abba

 

Abstract

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was  to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in  Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria.

Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred and thirty consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Grimad hospital and eighty non-pregnant women from the out-patient clinic were screened for the presence of HCV antibodies. This was done by Skytech diagnostic  laboratory rapid strip (USA) and confirmed by ELISA method.

Results: Out of 130 pregnant women 9(6.9%) were confirmed to be positive to HCV antibodies. Also out of 80 non-pregnant women of the same age group, used as control, 4(5.0%) were positive.

Conclusion: A prevalence rate of 6.9% calls for urgent attention by policy makers and healthcare providers to begin massive enlightenment of this problem. All pregnant women should be screened for early detection.

Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Pregnancy, Screening, Transmission.

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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria

Perception of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and chloroquine prescription pattern and among nurses in South-West Nigeria

AM Efunshile, RO Oduyemi, DN Igwe, CN Igwenyi, V Adenugba

 

Abstract

Background-Malaria remains a threat to millions of children despite the recent advances recorded in the fight against the disease which remain the 3rd largest killer of children below the age of 5 years in endemic regions. Drug resistant plasmodium species continues to limit the fight against malaria, while the spread of fake and substandard antimalarial drugs has been recognized as a major problem across Africa because of its association with drug resistant parasite. We aim to find out the prescription pattern of chloroquine among nurses in South-West Nigeria and perception of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

Design and methods-About 180 pre-tested questionnaires were administered to randomly selected nurses out of which 155 were sufficiently completed and suitable for analysis. Results-Majority (56.1%) still have confidence in the efficacy of CQ which was still being prescribed by 45.2% of the respondents. CQ was mostly prescribed by those who had previous ACT treatment failure experience (54.3%) with their patients, P=0.03; as well as those who believe that ACT resistance malaria is now in circulation (44.3%). Fifty (32.3%) of our respondents claimed that they had come across fake and substandard ACT, from which 40.0% now prescribe CQ.

Discussion-The high rate of CQ prescription in this study showed that many of the health workers were still resistant to the change in antimalarial treatment policy, which is related to unsatisfactory experience with ACT. Additional measures are urgently required to verify this experience so as to win the confidence of healthcare workers away from chloroquine.

Keywords: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), chloroquine, substandard antimalarial

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Perception of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and chloroquine prescription pattern and among nurses in South-West Nigeria

Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo Health Center, Rwanda

Noel Gahamanyi, Jean de Dieu Mugabo, Claude Bayingana

 

Abstract

Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite causing amebiasis. It occurs usually in the large intestine and causes internal inflammation as its name means (histo = tissue, lytic = destroying). Between 40 and 50 million people are infected worldwide, mostly in tropical countries, in areas of poor sanitation. The infection occurs by ingestion of mature cyst in fecally contaminated food, water or hands. The disease shows different symptoms including vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, watery and bloody diarrhea. While the infection becomes extra intestinal, it may cause abscess in other organs such as liver, kidney, brain and lungs.

The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of E. histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo Health Center. A total of 103 fecal specimens were collected over a period of three months. Out of 103 specimens, only 26 (25.2%) were positive for E. histolytica. Out of the 26 specimens positive for E. histolytica, 17 (16.5%) and 9 (8.7%) were from males and females respectively. Furthermore, of the 26 Specimens positive for E. histolytica, 15 (14.6%) and 11 (10.7%) were from people ≤ 15 and >15 years of age respectively. Entamoeba histolytica was more prevalent 26 (25.2%) than other parasites including Giardia with 15 (14.6%), Ascaris sp with 5 (4.9%), Trichomonas intestinalis with 16 (15.5%) and Entamoeba coli with 1 (1%). In order to reduce Entamoeba histolytica contamination and infections, the following recommendations were pointed out: (i) improving personal hygiene (washing hand before eating and after using latrines) ; (ii) avoiding fecal contamination of food, water, and utensils ; and (iii) boiling drinking water before consumption.

Keywords: Parasites, Prevalence, Entamoeba histolytica, amebiasis, Stool specimens, Muhondo Health Center

Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo Health Center, Rwanda