Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes among apparently healthy women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology in Kaduna State, Nigeria

*[1]Adejo, D. S., [2]Aminu, M., 2 Ella, E. E., 1Oguntayo, O. A., and [3]Obishakin, O. F

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Institute of Human Virology Nigeria (IHVN), Jos Regional Office, Plateau State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: adedansteve@gmail.com; Tel: 08036057990

 

Abstract:                                                                                                                   

Background: About 99.7% of cervical dysplasia and cancer cases are caused by persistent genital high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. Most HPV infections are subclinical and self-limiting but may persist in about 5 to 10% of infected women, resulting in pre-cancerous lesions that can progress to invasive cancer years later. This study is aimed at detecting hrHPV among apparently healthy women of reproductive age in Kaduna State, thus providing more information for effective control of HPV and cervical cancer in Nigeria.

Methodology: Cervical smears were taken from 515 randomly selected apparently healthy women across selected secondary and tertiary facilities from 3 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in each Senatorial Zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) technique was used to collect cervical smears and prepare smears for cytology study, while the remaining samples were stored at -80oC for molecular studies. HPV DNA were extracted from the samples and amplified by convectional PCR using specific hrHPV (HPV 16,18,31 and 45) primer sets and a broad spectrum MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers for a wider range of HPV genotypes. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 and relationship between prevalence of hrHPV and socio-demographic factors such as age and marital status were determined using Chisquare or Fisher Exact test with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes among apparently healthy women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology in Kaduna State, Nigeria”

Knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B amongst students of Pamo University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1]Ogban, G. I., *1Iwuafor, A. A., [2]Ushie, S. N., 1Emanghe, U. E., [3]Edadi, U. E., and 4Ekpe, L

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

2Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

4Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria                                       

*Correspondence to: tonyiwuafor@unical.edu.ng.com; +23408033441539

Connaissance et sensibilisation à l’hépatite B parmi les étudiants de l’Université des sciences médicales de Pamo (PUMS),Port Harcourt, État de Rivers, Nigéria

1Ogban, G. I., *1Iwuafor, A. A., 2Ushie, S. N., 1Emanghe, U. E., 3Edadi, U. E., et 4Ekpe, L.

1Département de Microbiologie Médicale et Parasitologie, Université de Calabar, Calabar, Nigéria

2Université Nnamdi Azikiwe, Awka, État d’Anambra, Nigéria

3Département de Médecine Interne, Université de Calabar, Calabar, Nigéria

4Département de Pathologie Chimique, Université de Calabar, Calabar, Nigéria

*Correspondance à: tonyiwuafor@unical.edu.ng.com; +23408033441539

 

Abstract:

Background: Globally, 296 million people were infected by hepatitis B in 2019, with 1.1 million deaths.  Africa is one of the endemic regions. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B remain pivotal to the biosafety of medical students. This study sought to determine the levels of knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among students of Pamo University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and the predicting factors associated with this knowledge and awareness. The is with the aim of providing recommendations for improving and sustaining biosafety levels for medical and other health-related students of the University. Continue reading “Knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B amongst students of Pamo University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria”

Antibiotic resistance profiles of uropathogenic bacterial isolates in Haut-Sassandra Region, Côte d’Ivoire from January 2019 to December 2022

 

[1]Gbégbé, D. A., 1,2N’zi, N. P., 3Monthaut, S., 2Guessennd-Kouadio, N., and *1Angaman, D. M.

1Department of Biochemistry-Microbiology, Jean Lorougnon Guédé University, Daloa, P.O. Box 150 Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire

2Department of Bacteriology-Virology, National Reference Center for Antibiotics, Pasteur Institute Côte d’Ivoire, P. O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d’Ivoire

3Bacteriology-Virology Laboratory, Regional Hospital Center of Daloa, P. O. Box 207 Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire *Correspondence to: angaman@ujlg.edu.ci

 

Abstract:

Background: The escalating issue of bacterial resistance is a profound universal peril. This looming crisis has evolved from a mere forecast to a tangible reality globally. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) significantly influence antibiotic prescriptions in primary care, thus crucially impacting the selective pressure and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A profound comprehension of the microorganisms involved in UTIs and their resistance patterns is crucial, particularly in Daloa city, Côte d’Ivoire. This research aims to review the antibiotic resistance profiles of uropathogens isolated from patients in the Regional Hospital Center (CHR) of Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire from January 2019 to December 2022. Continue reading “Antibiotic resistance profiles of uropathogenic bacterial isolates in Haut-Sassandra Region, Côte d’Ivoire from January 2019 to December 2022”

Prevalence of symptomatic significant bacteriuria and associated risk factors among patients attending major hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria

*[1]Bassey, E. E., 1Mbah, M., 1Akpan, S. S., [2]Ikpi, E. E., and 1Alaribe, A. A. A.

1Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Urology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: emmanueleffiong2046@gmail.com; ORCiD: //orcid.org/0000-0003-2029-5611

 

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most encountered bacterial infections of humans and affect both male and female of all age groups, resulting in high mortality, without proper management. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, aetiological agents, and factors associated with symptomatic significant bacteriuria/UTI among patients attending selected hospitals in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of 240 patients with suspected UTI, from whom mid-stream voided urine samples were collected for culture on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar. Uropathogens growth on the culture media were characterized using conventional microbiological and biochemical tests, and confirmed with API® 20E and 20NE (BioMérieux) identification system. Data on socio-demographic, clinical symptoms and potential risk factors were obtained using structured questionnaire. Pearson Chi-square was employed to determine association between categorical variables with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Continue reading “Prevalence of symptomatic significant bacteriuria and associated risk factors among patients attending major hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria”

Faecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) in children under five years of age at a tertiary hospital in southwest Nigeria

[1]Abayomi, S. A., 2Oladibu, O. T., 3Lawani, O. A., 4Owolabi, K. I., 2Alabi, A. O.,        and *2Onigbinde, M. O.

1Cancer Research UK, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

2Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

42102 Cole Street, Dudley, West Midlands, United Kingdom                                         

*Correspondence to: moonigbinde@lautech.edu.ng

Abstract:  

Background:  The main reservoir of Enterobacterales is the human gut, which has been reported as a source of hospital acquired infection. Enterobacterales carrying the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes have emerged over the years as significant multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, that have hindered effective therapy of infections caused by them, and limited treatment to a small number of drugs such as carbapenems, leading to selection pressure and emergent resistance to carbapenems. The objective of this study was to determine the faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (ESPL-PE) among children under 5 years of age at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.    Continue reading “Faecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) in children under five years of age at a tertiary hospital in southwest Nigeria”

Evaluation of serum concentration of essential trace elements during therapy among tuberculosis patients in Uyo, Nigeria

*[1]Umo, A. N., [2]Umoh, S. G., 2Jimmy, N. F., and 2Adie, S. A.

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: anthonyumo@uniuyo.edu.ng

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional status is one of the most important determinants of immune response to infection. The objective of this study was to assess the serum concentrations of selected trace elements in selected patients on anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Continue reading “Evaluation of serum concentration of essential trace elements during therapy among tuberculosis patients in Uyo, Nigeria”

Pattern of inappropriate antibiotic use among patients in the medical wards of a tertiary hospital in southwest Nigeria

*1Otaigbe, I. I., 2Oshun, P. O., and 2Oduyebo, O. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Basic Clinical Sciences, Benjamin Carson (Snr)

College of Health and Medical Sciences, Babcock University/Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: otaigbei@babcock.edu.ng; +2348024406763; ORCID: 0000-0003-3140-1205

 Abstract:

 Background: The inappropriate use of antibiotics results in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and adverse clinical and economic outcomes in hospital in-patients. A lack of institutional and national antibiotic guidelines promotes inappropriate antibiotic use. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, and the quality of antibiotic use in medical wards of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Continue reading “Pattern of inappropriate antibiotic use among patients in the medical wards of a tertiary hospital in southwest Nigeria”

Antimicrobial activity of selected nutraceutical plants used in Northern Uganda

*1Ikinyom, N., 2Lamwaka, A. V., 3Malagala, A. T., and 4Ndyomugyenyi, E. K.

1Department of Environment, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

3Institute of Peace and Strategic Studies, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

4Department of Animal Production and Range Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Gulu University, P. O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda

*Correspondence to: ikinyom@yahoo.co.uk & ikinyomiriam@gmail.com. Tel: +256 0772-389056

Abstract:
Background: Nutraceutical plants (NP) play a vital role as supportive treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). However, there is limited scientific evidence on the efficacy of NP to justify their extensive use. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three nutraceutical plants which are commonly used as antimicrobials. Continue reading “Antimicrobial activity of selected nutraceutical plants used in Northern Uganda”

Antagonistic activity of secondary metabolites from rhizofunctional bacteria extracts against Fusarium species

Antwi, E. O.
Accra Technical University, P. O. Box 571, Accra, Ghana Correspondence to: eoantwi@atu.edu.gh

Abstract:

Background: Fusarium species remain important fugal pathogens that produce several mycotoxins with adverse effects on both plant and animals. This work aimed to identify biocontrol agent from rhizofunctional bacteria and assess its antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. using dual culture technique. Methodology: Briefly a circular disc of the Fusarium sp. was inoculated at the center of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plate and incubated for three days. The bacterial isolates were then inoculated about 2cm from the Fusarium hyphal tips and incubated for three days, and zone of inhibition was examined. Isolates that showed antagonistic activities against the fungi were subculture in nutrient broth for three days and the metabolites were extracted using ethyl acetate. The metabolic extracts were tested against the fungi using the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 20 rhizofunctional bacterial isolates screened for antagonistic activities against Fusarium sp., 5 showed active antagonism against the fungi with observed clear zone of inhibition in the dual culture, and microscopic examination of the fungal hyphae showed excessive and diffused hyphal branching with hyphal swelling. Ethyl acetate extracts from nutrient broth cultures did not show any zone of inhibition in dual culture against the Fusarium sp. All the 5 bacterial isolates were Gram positive strains but only 2 isolates (2a and 3K) were lipase positive, which may indicate that the mechanisms of antagonism could be due to the production of enzymes that have the ability to hydrolyze the cell wall and membrane lipids of the fungi. Conclusion: The rhizoplane and rhizosphere of plants could be great sources of biocontrol agents and that bacterial isolates 2a and 3K have the potential to be used as antifungal agents against Fusarium sp. Molecular identification of 2a and 3K bacterial isolates to the species level is recommended.

Keywords: antagonistic; secondary metabolites; rhizofunctional; bacteria; Fusarium
Received Oct 6, 2022; Revised Dec 15, 2022; Accepted Oct 19, 2023

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Antagonistic activity of secondary metabolites from rhizofunctional bacteria extracts against Fusarium species