INCIDENCE OF DERMATOPHYTE INFECTIONS AMONGST SOME OCCUPATIONAL AND SELECT GROUPS IN JOS

P.O. Nwadiaro

 

Abstract

Fifty-nine Agro farm workers, 265 inmates from Jos main prison, 60 hair weavers and 40 car washers were examined in Jos for dermatophyte infections. Dermatophyte isolates included Trichophyton and Microsporum species. The highest infection rate of 75% was recorded among the farm workers with toeweb infections due to T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. 25% of the other infections were from the groin region due to T. tonsurans and T. mentagrophytes. Fifty-nine percent of infection by T. mentagrophytes in prison inmates was restricted to the groin region. Other species of fungi isolated from the inmates were Trichosporon cutaneum and Aspergillus niger. Among the car washers, tinea manum, ringworm of the hand, and interdigital infections due to T.mentagrophytes were observed. There was no visible infection among either the female hair weavers or the female prison inmates.

Keywords: Dermatophytosis, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, M. canis, Tinea pedis, Tinea cruris.

(Af J Clinical & Exp Microbiology: 2003 4(2): 11-17)

INHIBITION OF SWARMING BY UREA AND ITS DIAGNOSTIC IMPLICATIONS AMONG UROPATHOGENIC PROTEUS SPECIES FROM LAGOS, NIGERIA

B.A. Iwalokun, K.A. Akinsinde, N. Nkiruika

 

Abstract

The anti-swarming property of urea and effects on antibiotic susceptibility among 52 uropathogenic Proteus strains from Lagos, Nigeria were investigated. Urea caused a reduction in swarming and number of swarmed cells at 0.5% (n = 42, DOCZ = 15.5mm), 0.75% (n= 24, DOCZ = 10.7mm), 1% (n = 17, DOCZ = 3.4mm) and 1.25% (n = 8, DOCZ = 1.7mm).  Compared to DOCZ obtained at 0.5% urea, the further reduction in DOCZ at other urea concentrations was found to be significant (p < 0.05).  Urea at less than 0.75% allowed identification of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus in mixed cultures containing Proteus spp, while colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were distinctly identified at 1% urea with swarming restrained at 1.25% urea.  At 1.25% urea, antibiotic susceptibility testing by agar diffusion method revealed significant increase and decrease in the number of Proteus strains that showed resistance to amoxicillin and nitrofurantoin. Compared with the control, significant increases in the MICs of gentamicin or nitrofurantoin and streptomycin were found at $ 0.5% and $ 0.75% urea respectively (p<0.05). The identification of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) producing strains were unaffected by urea.  This study has demonstrated urea induced swarming inhibition of uropathogenic Proteus in vitro.  However, results suggest the use of urea with great caution in diagnostic practices for optimal clinical and public health benefits in Nigeria.

Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, anti-swarming, urea, uropathogenic proteus, Nigeria, DOCZ = Diameter of outermost colony zone mean value

(Af J Clinical & Exp Microbiology: 2003 4(2): 18-28)

THE EFFECT OF SOME NIGERIAN LOCAL HERBS ON HELICOBACTER PYLORI

S. I. Smith, K.S. Oyedeji, B. Opere, B. A. Iwalokun, E. A. Omonigbehin

 

Abstract

Four Nigerian medicinal plants commonly used in the treatment of bacterial infections were tested for antimicrobial activity against twenty local strains of Helicobacter pylori recovered from patients with gastro-duodenal ulcers and gastritis. In vitro agar diffusion assay revealed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of ethanolic extracts of C. papaya and M. lucida to 80% (16/20) of the isolates tested, while the ethanolic extracts of O. gratissimum and P. amarus inhibited the colonial growth of 35% (7/20) of these strains. The zones of inhibition ranged from 5 – 20 mm in diameter. Contrastingly, the aqueous extracts of these plants appeared to lack anti-Helicobacter pylori activity except in M. lucida and O. gratissimum where inhibition of a total of three isolates was observed. The present results suggest the presence of anti-Helicobacter pylori principles in ethanolic extracts of C. papaya and M. lucida and support their future use in the treatment of ulcers and gastritis in Nigeria.

(Af J Clinical & Exp Microbiology: 2003 4(2): 29-35)