Molecular identification and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex amongst people living with HIV in Osun state, Nigeria

O Alli, D.O Ogbolu, M.A Salawu, J.G Oyedeji, L Oladokun, F Obaseki

 

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has created a special niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in humans as a result of the defect/reduction in cell mediated immunity. M. tuberculosis still responsible for most cases of death due to infectious diseases after HIV. In this study, prevalence of M. tuberculosis was determined in people living with HIV in Osun state of Nigeria with identification of culture positive isolates by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 160 samples were collected from people living with HIV with mean age of 36.8 years old of age (Median -34; age range 16 – 68; 95% confidence interval – 2.49) after seeking ethical approval from the Ministry of Health, Osun State. The result of the microscopy by ZN stain showed that 40 (25%) of the 160 samples were positive for acid fast bacilli while culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium revealed that 30 (18.75%) of the samples processed, grew organism that conformed to the characteristics of M. tuberculosis complex. Polymerase chain reaction for IS6110 was used to confirm the identity of the colonies on LJ slope as M. tuberculosis complex while the PCR for 260 bp of Rv1255c was used in identifying M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis represented 92% of the M. tuberculosis complex. The prevalence of M. tuberculosis among people living with HIV was found to be 15% after PCR identification. The effects of socio-demographic factors on the prevalence of TB were analysed. Occupation was found to be associated with the proportional distribution of TB in people living with HIV (X2 = 14.85; p < 0.05). The study concluded that PCR should be integrated into the schema for identification of tuberculosis in reference laboratories in developing countries.

Key words: Molecular identification, Polymerase chain reaction, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Prevalence, HIV, Nigeria

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Molecular identification and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex amongst people living with HIV in Osun state, Nigeria.

Studies on bacterial infections of diabetic foot ulcer

J Hena, L Growther

 

Abstract

Microbial study for aerobic organisms from 100 cases of diabetic foot ulcers was carried out to determine the etiological agents and their antibiogram. Polymicrobial infection was observed in all the cases. The most frequently isolated aerobic organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates were done in which imepenem was found to be effective. Imipenem belongs to the ß lactam group of new generation antibiotics.

Key words: Diabetes, Imipenam, Foot ulcer.

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Studies on bacterial infections of diabetic foot ulcer

Global trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus and emerging challenges for control

O Azeez-Akande

 

Abstract

Background: Following its first recognition in early 1960s, the increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has become a global problem. The emergence of multiple-drug resistant MRSA strains and dissemination of epidemic antibiotic clones including presence of wide spectrum of virulence and predisposing risk factors complicate diagnosis, chemotherapy and control causing significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of MRSA strains in domestic animals and protozoan has widened the epidemiologic characters of the organism and may influence infection control policies. Objectives: To review the emergence and epidemiologic spread of resistant strains of MRSA, molecular/genetic basis of resistance in the organism and challenges facing control strategies worldwide. It also aims to suggest intervention strategies so as to checkmate the spread of MRSA infections.
Methods: By reviewing local and international literatures on MRSA infections coupled with practical experience in the field of this endeavour. Result/Conclusion: MRSA has shown increasing endemic and epidemic spread in the last four decades causing serious medical and socio-economic difficulties. Routine and regular surveillance (uncommon in poor-resourced developing areas of especially sub-Saharan Africa), good hospital practices and personal hygiene, public enlightenment, development of effective therapeutic agents and rational administration of antibiotics based on reliable test results will limit the spread of MRSA infections.

Key words: MRSA, incidence, morbidity, mortality, surveillance, control.

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Global trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus and emerging challenges for control