Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a mini-review

1Musa-Booth, T. O., *2Adegboro, B., and 2Medugu, N.
11928 Woodlawn Drive, Woodlawn, Maryland 21207, USA

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved over time with several mutations, especially on the spike protein, which has led to emergence of various variants. With the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 come new challenges in surveillance, effectiveness of preventive and treatment strategies, and outcome of the disease. Despite the lockdowns, mask mandates and other preventive measures put in place, in addition to over 10 million vaccine doses that have been administered globally as of February 2022, COVID-19 cases have risen to over 435 million and resulted in over 5.9 million deaths, largely as a result of the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants. To review the evolution of these variants, we searched different online database sources using keywords such as “source of SARS-CoV-2”, “SARS-CoV-2 origin”, “evolution of SARS-CoV-2”, “SARS-CoV-2 variants”, “variants of concern”, “variants of interest”, and “variants of high consequence”. This was to enable us give a good report about the various variants of SARS-CoV-2 that have emerged so far, and the public health challenges posed by them. Continue reading “Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a mini-review”

Overview of human and animal brucellosis in Nigeria and its economic impacts on production

economic impacts on production

*1Ukwueze, C. S., 2Kalu, E., 3Odirichukwu, E. O., 4Ikpegbu, E., and 5Luka, P. D.

1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Theriogenology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

5Biotechnology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348030793359

Abstract:

 

Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative agent of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, presently affects approximately one half of the world population. This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori among individuals with and without peptic ulcer symptoms in Owerri, Nigeria, in order to provide baseline data and create awareness for effective management and prevention of infection caused by this pathogen.

Methodology: A total of 384 participants, symptomatic and asymptomatic for peptic ulcer, were recruited from the three Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The symptomatic participants were randomly recruited among patients attending outpatient clinics with symptoms of peptic ulcer disease at the Federal Medical Center Owerri, general hospitals and primary healthcare centers across Owerri LGAs, while asymptomatic patients were recruited from the community. Information on socio-demographic characteristics of each participant and potential risk factors were collected with a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for detection of antibodies (IgG) using a one-step H. pylori test device while faecal samples were collected for detection of occult blood (from peptic ulceration) using faecal occult blood (FOB) test. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 and association of risk factors with H. pylori sero-prevalence was determined by the Chi-square or Fisher Exact test (with Odds ratio). P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The sero-prevalence of H. pylori infection among the study participants was 72.4% (285/384) while the prevalence of ulcer by FOB test was 71.1% (273/384). A total of 78.4% (214/273) of those with ulcers were seropositive for H. pylori while 64.0% (71/111) of those without ulcers were sero-positive for H. pylori (p=0.0045). Factors significantly associated with high sero-prevalence of H. pylori were age groups 41-50 (100%), 21-30 (78.4%) and 31-40 (67.6%) years (X2=66.964, p<0.0001), illiteracy (OR=6.888, p<0.0001), unemployment (OR=2.427, p<0.0001), low social class status (X2=28.423, p=0.0003), drinking of unclean water (OR=5.702, p<0.0001), living in crowded rooms (OR=2.720, p<0.0001), eating food bought from food vendors (OR=3.563, p<0.0001), family history of ulcer (OR=12.623, p<0.0001), habits of eating raw vegetables and unwashed fruits (OR=6.272, p<0.0001), non-regular hand washing practices before meal (OR=2.666, p<0.0001) and presence of ulcer (OR=2.043, p=0.0045). However, smoking (OR=0.7581, p=0.2449) and gender (OR=0.6538, p=0.0796) were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence of H. pylori.

Conclusion: There is need for comprehensive strategy including public health education campaign to create awareness on H. pylori, improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, provision of safe drinking water by the government to the populace, and discourage indiscriminate and open defecation.

 

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; peptic ulcer; serology; risk factors; association; Owerri

Received Jan 16, 2022; Revised Apr 18, 2022; Accepted Apr 19, 2022

Copyright 2022 AJCEM Open Access. This article is licensed and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attrition 4.0 International License <a rel=”license” href=”//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided credit is given to the original author(s) and the source. Editor-in-Chief: Prof. S. S. Taiwo

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Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a mini-review

 

Sero-prevalence of and risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infections among individuals with peptic ulcer in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria during 2020-2021

*1Okoroiwu, G. I. A., 2Okoroiwu, I. L., 1Ubosi, N. I., and 3Sani, N. M.

 

1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria

 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Kano State University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; 08036677539

 

Abstract:

 

Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative agent of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, presently affects approximately one half of the world population. This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori among individuals with and without peptic ulcer symptoms in Owerri, Nigeria, in order to provide baseline data and create awareness for effective management and prevention of infection caused by this pathogen. Continue reading “Sero-prevalence of and risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infections among individuals with peptic ulcer in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria during 2020-2021”

Prevalence of Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among male food handlers in Laghouat Province, Algeria

 

*[1]Sebaa, S., [2]Baroudi, D., and 1,[3]Hakem, A.  

 

1Laboratory of Exploration and Valorization of Steppic Ecosystems, Faculty SNV, University of Ziane Achour, 17000 Djelfa, Algeria

2National Veterinary School, Issad Abbes Street, El-Alia, Algiers, Algeria

3Research Center in Agro-pastoralism, Moudjbara Road, 17000 Djelfa, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

 

Abstract:

 

Background: Food-borne diseases are a global public health problem, most especially in developing countries. Food handlers with a low level of personal hygiene may be colonized or infected by a wide range of enteric pathogenic micro-organisms including intestinal parasites and bacteria. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among male food handlers in Laghouat province, southern Algeria. Continue reading “Prevalence of Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among male food handlers in Laghouat Province, Algeria”

Assessment of microbial quality and detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase genes in Gram-negative bacterial isolates of herbal mixtures commonly hawked in Sagamu metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

*1Olaniran, O. B., 1Ajayi, S. E., 2Oluwatobi, O. B., and 2Adeleke, O. E.

1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University,

Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria                                                                              2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

 

Background: The use of herbal mixtures in the treatment of diseases is on the rise. Many of these herbal drugs are not produced under hygienic conditions and safety issues associated with herbal medicines may have an exacerbated impact in immunocompromised and elderly individuals. This study aimed to determine the microbial loads of locally prepared herbal mixtures and detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes in any isolated Gram-negative bacteria pathogen. Continue reading “Assessment of microbial quality and detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase genes in Gram-negative bacterial isolates of herbal mixtures commonly hawked in Sagamu metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria”

Investigation of rodent reservoirs of emerging pathogens in Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa

 

*1,2Meite, S., 1,2Koffi, K. S., 1Kouassi, K. S., 1Coulibaly, K. J., 1Koffi, K. E., 1Sylla, A., 1Sylla, Y., 1,2Faye-Ketté, H., and 1,2Dosso, M.

 

1Molecular Biology Platform and Environnement and Health Department, Pasteur Institute, Cote d’Ivoire 2Medical Sciences, Microbiology department, Felix Houphouet Boigny University, Cocody, Abidjan *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: One of the main health problems in West Africa remains upsurge of emerging pathogens. Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in 2014 in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, Monkeypox virus in Nigeria in 2017 and most recently Lassa virus in Nigeria, Togo and Benin in 2018. These pathogens have animal reservoirs as vectors for transmission. Proper investigation of the pathogens in their rodent vectors could help reduce and manage their emergence and spread. Continue reading “Investigation of rodent reservoirs of emerging pathogens in Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa”

Chemical composition analysis of essential oils of four plants from Aurès region of Algeria and their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against coagulase-negative staphylococci

*1Zatout, A., 1Djibaoui, R., 2Flamini, G., 2Ascrizzi, R., 3Benbrahim, C., 4Mazari, H. E., 5Benkredda, F., 6Mechaala, S., and 7,8Kassah-Laouar, A.

 

1Laboratory of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of Abdlhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeria

2Dipartimento di Farmacia, Via Bonanno 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy

3Laboratory of Microbiology Applied to the Agroalimentary Biomedical and the Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University Abou BekrBelkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria

4 Geo-environment and Space Development (LGEDE), University of Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara, Algeria

5Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, University of Oran 1 Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria

6Laboratory of Genetics, Biotechnology and Valorization of Bio-resources, Department of Natural Sciences and Life,

Faculty of Exact Sciences and Sciences of Nature and Life, Mohamed Khider University, Biskra, Algeria

7Central Laboratory of Medical Biology, Anti-Cancer Center, Batna, Algeria

8Faculty of Medicine, University of Batna 2, Batna, Algeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: The altitudinal and geographical variability of the Aurès mountains of Algeria favored the existence of some endemic and rare varieties of medicinal plants. The aim of the present work is to determine the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of the essential oils (EOs) from aerial parts of four medicinal plants from Aurès region of Algeria; Juniperus thurifera L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus ssp. munbyanus (Boiss. & Reut.) Batt. on coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates. Continue reading “Chemical composition analysis of essential oils of four plants from Aurès region of Algeria and their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against coagulase-negative staphylococci”

Characterization of bacteria isolates colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria and in vitro antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia and Alum on the isolates

1Olajide, O. A., *1Kolawole, O. M., 1Bada-Siyede, I. B., 1Ayanda, O. O., and 1,2Suleiman, M. M.

1Infectious Disease and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology,  Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria                            2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Summit University, Offa, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +234-8060088495

Abstract:

Background: Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms implicated in nosocomial respiratory infections is a major reason for prolonged hospital stay and increased cost of therapeutic treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). This study was designed to isolate bacterial pathogens colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at the Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, and to evaluate antibacterial effects of extracts of Citrus aurantifolia peel and Alum against these bacterial isolates.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study of 100 randomly recruited hospitalized patients at the Sobi Specialist

Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Throat samples collected from consenting participants were cultured on selective agar media (MacConkey, Eosin-Methylene blue and Mannitol salt) for isolation of bacteria. Identification of isolates from culture plates was done by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical tests while confirmation of the isolates was done by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Antibiotic susceptibility test for each isolate to selected antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, nitrofuran, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) was done by the Kirby Buer disc diffusion method. Aqueous extract of Alum ([KAl(SO4).12H2O]) was done to produce concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (w/v) at pH 3.6 and tested on the bacterial isolates using agar diffusion method. Citrus aurantifolia peel was extracted using methanol and hexane solvents to produce extract concentrations of 500mg/ml, 250mg/ml and 150mg/ml, and tested on the isolates by agar diffusion, and by the broth dilution method to obtain minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of C. aurantifoliaContinue reading “Characterization of bacteria isolates colonizing the throat of hospitalized patients at Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria and in vitro antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia and Alum on the isolates”

In vivo assessment of antibacterial activity of Cassia sieberiana stem bark extracts on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in Wister rats

In vivo assessment of antibacterial activity of Cassia sieberiana stem bark extracts on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in Wister rats

1Usanga, V. U., 1Ukwah, B. N., 2William, O., *1Kalu, M. E., 3Akpan, J. L., 1Azi, O. S., and 1Ude, U. A.

 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Department of Laboratory Services, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234806 402 8592

Abstract:

 Background: The acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care has led researchers to further investigate the antimicrobial and other health benefits of medicinal plants including Cassia sieberiana. The objective of this study is to assess the in vivo antibacterial effects of C. sieberiana stem bark extracts on infections caused by human and animal isolates of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in Wister rats.

Methodology: This in vivo study was designed for 21 days in 3 phases of 7 days each; adaptation, infection and treatment. Escherichia coli were isolated from aerobic cultures of human and cattle faecal samples and EHEC 0157 identified by serological typing using latex agglutination method. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of authenticated C. sieberiana stem bark, were prepared using standard method. Forty-five Wister rats were randomly divided into 9 groups (A-I) of 5 rats each. Rats in group A (uninfected with human or animal EHEC isolate and untreated) served as negative control while rats in group B (infected with EHEC animal isolate and untreated) and group C (infected with EHEC human isolate and untreated) served as positive controls. Rats in group C through group I were experimental groups that were either infected with human or animal EHEC isolate and treated, or uninfected but treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts of C. sieberiana. During each of the study phase, faecal samples were collected from the rats and processed for evaluation of EHEC count and to determine faecal occult blood. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0 and categorical variables were compared with Pearson’s Chi-square, with significant value taken as p<0.05 Continue reading “In vivo assessment of antibacterial activity of Cassia sieberiana stem bark extracts on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in Wister rats”

Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria using the complete Amsel’s diagnostic criteria

*1Udeogu, C. V., 1Agbakoba, N. R., 1Chukwuma, L. N., 2Okwelogu, S. I., and 3Oguejiofor, C. B.

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Medical Microbiology Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria

2Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) in pregnant women remains a cause for clinical concern among clinicians and health care professionals. BV has been linked to prenatal, antenatal and postnatal challenges in pregnant women. Information on prevalence of BV across trimesters of pregnancy is expected to give better clinical insight into the pathophysiology of this polymicrobial disorder. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of BV in pregnant women attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Nigeria. Continue reading “Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria using the complete Amsel’s diagnostic criteria”