SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN VILLAGE SOLANA, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA

MM Mya, RK Saxena, A Roy

 

Abstract

The roles of causative factors responsible for prevalence of malaria in the village of Solana, India, were studied. Mosquitoes and larvae density in and around the area were measured by process of random sampling and counting their numbers under microscopy. Malaria in population of the village was diagnosed by standard ELISA method and malaria antibody capturing level were measured against three Plasmodium falciparumantigens. The effect of insecticides for the control of malaria was also evaluated. Results of study showed that more than two third of village human populations (75%) were suffering from malaria, with 67.14% being children below 14 years of age. Similarly vectors identification study showed Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi as the main source for infection transmission. Sporozoite positive rate estimated in Anopheles culicifacies was found to be 1.26%. Both vectors were resistant to DDT and Malathion insecticides. Antibody capturing by three different Plasmodium falciparum antigens study showed that glycophospholipid antigen (GPL) was able to capture and detect highest amount of malarial antibody followed by sonicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) antigen and ring infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) i.e. 0.69±0.22, 0.60±0.22 and 0.59±0.23 respectively. Age specific antibody levels was found to gradually increase from lowest to highest age groups i.e. 0.29– 1.18 for GPL, 0.25-0.94 for RESA and 0.25-0.97 for Pf. The study showed that infants and children are highly prone to malaria attacks than the adult population, which may be as a result of low level of Plasmodium antibody in their circulation.

Key Words: Solana village, endemicity, malaria incidence, antibodies, ELISA, insecticides.

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 2-14

ORAL PROTOZOA IN A NIGERIA POPULATION

UC Ozumba, N Ozumba, EM Ndiokwelu

 

Abstract

A study aimed at establishing the occurrence of oral protozoa in a Nigeria population was carried out over a 6-month period, January 1998 to June 1998. A total of 203 dental patients attending the dental clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu were involved. Scrapings of plaque were taken from the buccal surfaces of T16 and T36 (near the gingival margins) and placed on individual glass microscope slides. To each was added a drop of saline, which was mixed with the plaque and covered with a coverslip and then examined immediately. Thirty-three (16.30%) of the patients harboured protozoa in their mouths. Of these, 10 (4.9%) had Trichomonas tenax, while the majority 23 (11.3%) had Entamoeba gingivalis. No patient had both species of protozoa in their mouths. The associations of age, sex, teeth cleaning and other dental parameters with prevalence of protozoa were recorded. Our findings suggest that poor oral hygiene, calculus, old age and loss of attachment of periodontal fibers, are factors, which favour the proliferation of Entamoeba gingivalis.

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 15-19

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA

O Ariyo, LK Olofintoye, RA Adeleke, O Famurewa

 

Abstract

The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was investigated among primary school pupils in Ekiti State by questionnaire survey in 601 schools between 1997 and 1998. A total of 9,551 (24.4%) were positive by the survey. 3483 (22.4%) of the girls and 6,069 (25.7%) of the boys were infected. The prevalence of this infection between girls and boys shows a significant difference (x215 = 59.5; p<0.05). Ekiti South West local government had the highest prevalence of S. haematobium infection of 69.0% while Ikole local government had the lowest prevalence of infection of 2.0%. Out of 1,049 pupils with clinical and laboratory examination, 280 (50.9%) of the 550 boys and 184 (36.9%) of the 499 girls were infected. Chi-square analysis shows a significant difference of S. haematobium infection between the girls and boys (X211 = 86.2; p<0.05). Chi square analysis also showed that questionnaire survey could be used to predict the laboratory epidemiological data (X21= 3.84; p<0.05).

Key Words: Schistosomiasis, Epidemiology, Infection, Bulinus globosus

African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 20-29

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