Etiologic agents of lower respiratory tract infections among patients attending tuberculosis clinic in Benin City, Nigeria

E.E. Ibadin, H.O. Ogefere, T.O. Ehondor

 

Abstract

The emergence of HIV has reawakened the tuberculosis (TB) scourge and infected patients are prone to opportunistic infections, this study was carried out to determine the HIV status and etiologic agents of Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among tuberculosis suspected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. The study was cross sectional. A total of 276 patients attending tuberculosis clinic were recruited. Questionnaires were filled for each patient. Blood and sputum specimens were collected in plain and sterile containers respectively and transported immediately to the laboratory. Blood samples were screened for the presence of HIV antibodies. The sputum specimens were then cultured following standard microbiological procedure, and thereafter processed using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. Emergent bacterial colonies were identified and susceptibility testing was carried out following standard microbiological techniques. A total of 118 (42.8%) non-mycobacterial bacterial agents were recovered from the patients. Patients were more likely to be culture positive for LRTI in comparison with TB infection (p < 0.0001). There was no association between TB and HIV status (OR = 0.6161, 95%CI = 0.226, 1.648, p = 0.4474). HIV positive patients were more likely to be culture positive for bacterial agents and Klebsiella pneumoniae was more likely to be recovered (p = 0.0338). The fluoroquinolones, gentamicin and ceftriaxone-sulbactam were the most active antibacterial agents against bacterial isolates. The prevalence of LRTI in this study was 52.2%. The study draws attention on the need for physicians to request for bacteriological culture (non-mycobacterial) alongside the TB diagnostic algorithm in suspected TB cases.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, HIV, opportunistic infections, patients, bacteria

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Etiologic agents of lower respiratory tract infections among patients attending tuberculosis clinic in Benin City, Nigeria

The prevalence of non-tuberculous recurrent cough in-patients within Cross River State, Nigeria

M.M. Akpan, A.A. Adegoke

 

Abstract

Introduction: Nontuberculous recurrent cough is becoming rampant among hospitalized patients.

Aim: Hospitalized patients and out-patients in some hospitals in Cross River State were studied for the prevalence of nontuberculous recurrent cough in the state

Methods: This was carried out using standard procedures in Microbiology.

Results: The bacterial isolates from the sputum samples were Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pneumoniaeStreptococcus pyogenesHaemophilus influenzaeEscherichia coliKlebsiella pneumoniae, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The patients’ age group 20 – 39 years had the highest prevalence of non – tuberculous recurrent cough (46.7%) while the least prevalence of 1.0% was among the age group ≥ 80 years. The prevalence rate of 33.7% was the highest among the social class and businessmen, while the least prevalence rate of 8.2% was found among students. Out of a total of 1466 samples studied, 93.6% was nontuberculous cases.

Conclusion: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is therefore not the predominant cause of cough in the study area as at the time of this study

Keywords: non-tuberculosis, recurrent cough, Ziehl-Neelsen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The prevalence of non-tuberculous recurrent cough in-patients within Cross River State, Nigeria

Molecular study of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes CagA, Hpa and BabA2 in Egyptian patients

M.E.S. Zaki, M.A. Rizk, A.O. Bakr, Mahmoud Mahmoud, M.A. Ali, A Shehta

 

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to detect virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori (H.pyloricagAbabA2 and hpa in gastric biopsies from patients with different stages of gastritis by polymerase chain reaction to correlate the presence of genes with the severity of the diseases.

Method: A total of 80 non repetitive gastric biopsies from antrum of the stomach were obtained from the patients and subjected to study for histological examination, unease activity, culture for H.pylori, and polymerase chain reaction studies of virulence genes cagAbabA2 and hpa.

Results: The most frequent detected gene by PCR was hpa (66.7%) and followed by cagA and babA2 (61.6%) for each. There was significant association between the three genes (P=0.0001). The study of the association between the virulence gene of H.pylori and different clinical symptoms revealed significant association of dyspepsia with cagA(P=0.001) babA2 and hpa (P=0.0001), regurgitation with cagA and babA2( P=0.002),vomiting with cagA and babA2 (P=0.01, P=0.002, respectively) and nausea with cagA and babA2 (P=0.0001, P=0.03, respectively). The virulence genes were detected in gastric ulcer. The degree of inflammation in histopathological examination was also statistically significant associated with the presence of virulences genes cagA (P=0.01), babA2 (p=0.0001) and hpa (P=0.0001)

The present study highlights the presence of virulence genes in H.pylori associated with gastric ulcer. The genes cagAbabA2 and hpa are prevalent among the strains affecting the patients. Moreover, these genes are associated with marked clinical and pathological severity. The genes are significantly associated with each other. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings.

Keywords: Gastritis, Genotypes, H.pyloricagAbabA2hpa, PCR

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Molecular study of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes CagA, Hpa and BabA2 in Egyptian patients