Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in an antenatal clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

RK Obi, SC Umeh, OH Okurede, II Iroagba

 

Abstract

A total of ten thousand and thirty two (10,032) pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Braithwaite Memorial Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria were screened between January 2000 to December 2004 for the possible occurrence of hepatitis B virus using HBV paper strips. The results showed that a total of 290 (2.89%) of the pregnant women tested positive for hepatitis B Virus. The years 2001 and 2002 had the highest prevalence of 61, while 2004 had the least prevalence of 52. No significant difference (P<0.5) was however observed in the annual prevalence of the infection among pregnant women in the hospital. Studies of the age distribution of the infection among the studied pregnant women showed that women in the age group of 41-45 had the highest prevalence rate (60%) for the sampled population within that age group, followed by women in the age group of 31-35 with an occurrence rate of 11.04% within that age group. The least rate of occurrence was observed in the age group of 21-25 which showed only 1.75%. The prevalence of the deadly hepatitis B virus among pregnant women whose immunity is often compromised by gynaecological and nutritional factors is of grave clinical importance.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 78-82

Evaluation of Sida acuta subspecie acuta leaf/flower combination for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents

Alhaji Saganuwan Saganuwan, Gulumbe Mohammed Lawal

 

Abstract

Sida acuta subspecie acuta Ieaf/flower combination was evaluated for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents using methanol, hexane, chloroform and aqueous method of extractions. The antibacterial activities were exhibited by the four extracts on E. coli, S pyogenes, P.multocida and S. typhumrium as there was no activity exhibited on S. tyhi, S. pneumoniae and K. phneumoniae. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and saponin whereas steroid and glycoside were absent.

Keywords: evaluation, sida, acuta, leaf, flower, antimicrabial, phytochemical, constituents

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 83-88

Resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the upper respiratory tract of persons attending various clinics of a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria – a preliminary study

OO Oduyebo, DU Nwaka, C Nwaowolo, FT Ogunsola

 

Abstract

The upper respiratory carriage rate, serotypes and resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in persons attending four clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were determined. Nasal swab specimens were collected from a total of 372 persons, 175 of whom were males and 177 were females. Their ages ranged from 14 weeks to 65 years. The upper respiratory carriage rate found in the total population of both adults and children was 9.9%, but the rate was highest in children less than 5 years (18.6%). Among the 17 isolates that were available for serotyping, there was no significant serotype, though resistant serotypes like 23F. 19F. 6A and I4 were identified. Initial oxacillin screening for penicillin resistance revealed that 12 out of 36 isolates were clearly sensitive, but combined with the result of Etest, penicillin resistance was found to be 6.8%. Susceptibility testing by disc diffusion revealed that 80.5% of isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and 94.4% to chloramphenicol. Sixty one percent were sensitive to erythromycin while 94.4% were resistant to co-trimoxazole and 80.5% to tetracycline. Except for amoxicillin and cefotaxime which showed high activity, sensitivity pattern by Etest was found to be similar to that of disc diffusion. The result of this study makes it possible to formulate hypothesis for a larger study. In this study. the carriage rate of S. pneumonia probably ranged from 2.6% to over 18.6% depending on the study population. If the limitations of this study are excluded in a larger study, the rate most likely will be higher. Also, penicillin resistance in carriage strains would be up to 6.8%, probably higher, but may be intermediate, so penicillin could still be useful for treatment of pneumonia and probably otitis media, but not meningitis. There is reason to watch out for increased resistance to penicillin, cephaloporin and erythromycin. Most pneumoeoccal isolates would likely be resistant to tetracycline and co-trimoxazole.

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 89-97