Association of sul genes and class 1 integron with trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates in Zagazig University, Egypt

SS Morsi, HE Sharaf, MA Gerges

 

Abstract

BackgroundStenotrophomonas maltophilia (S.maltophilia) is an intrinsically drug resistant    opportunistic pathogen associated with serious infections in humans. Acquired resistance to   trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT,co-trimoxazole), the main stay of therapy against S. maltophilia ,has made its treatment more problematic. Objectives: This work aimed to determine the occurrence  of SXT resistance among S. maltophilia isolated from Zagazig University Hospitals in Egypt and to   assess the association of sul genes and integron1 with SXT-resistant isolates.
Material and Methods: Thirty-two S.maltophilia isolates were identified in this study during the   period from 2013 to 2015. Screening of SXT-resistant isolates was done by Kirby-Bauer method.  Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) values for SXT were determined by agar dilution. S. maltophilia isolates were tested for the presence of sul1, sul2, sul3, and int 1 genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Amongst the 32 S. maltophilia isolates, 12(37.5%) were resistant to SXT. All SXT-resistant isolates were found to harbor sul1 gene and integron1. One of these isolates had sul2 gene  (1/12,8.3%). Meanwhile, sul3 gene was not detected in any of the SXT-resistant isolates. Only 2 of the 20 SXT-susceptible isolates was found to yield positive PCR results for sul1 gene, one of them gave positive result for class 1 Integron. The association of sul genes and Integrin1 with resistance to SXT had a statistically significant difference( P<0.0001). Conclusion: Our study indicated a high frequency of SXT resistance among clinical S.maltophilia isolates from Zagazig University Hospitals, in which sul genes and class 1 integron were found to have a major role.

KeywordsStenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim-resistant, Multiplex  PCR,  sul genes,  Integron 1

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Association of sul genes and class 1 integron with trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates in Zagazig University, Egypt

 

 

Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on the growth of some pathogenic microorganisms

BO Oluboyo, AO Oluboyo, SO Kalu

 

Abstract

This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on Staphylococcus aureus,  Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These effects were compared with those of ampicillin, gentamicin and pefloxacin. Phytochemical  analysis showed that the plant contained flavonoids, steroids, terpenes, alkaloids, benzenoids, saponins and lipids. This plant was found to have remarkable inhibitory effects on the growth of all the  organisms tested; S. aureus was the most susceptible (MIC 20ug/ml) while Pseudomonas aeruginosa and C. albicans were the least susceptible (MIC 30ug/ml). The organisms were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, the inhibition was almost directly proportional to the extract concentration. The aqueous extract had no significant increase inhibitory effects compared to the ethanol extract (p > 0.05). The standard antibiotics had no greater inhibitory effects on the test organisms in relation to the plant extracts (p>0.05). The in vitro analysis revealed that Phyllanthus amarus possesses an antimicrobial activity comparable with those of standard antibiotic discs. Further works is recommended to determine its suitability in chemotherapy.

Keywords: Inhibitory effects, Phyllanthus amarus extract, Pathogenic microorganisms.

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Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on the growth of some pathogenic microorganisms

Glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis infection during 6 months of treatment

KS Akinlade, SK Rahamon, VF Edem, OM Ige, OG Arinola

 

Abstract

Background: There is little information on the possible impact of drugs used in the treatment of  multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) on glycaemic levels. This study therefore assessed changes in glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with MDR-TB.
Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study involved 21 MDR-TB patients who were followed up for 6 months. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of each patient was determined before the  commencement of MDR-TB drug regimen and at 2, 4 and 6 months post treatment as part of a study which investigated them every 2 months. Differences in means were assessed using the paired Student’s t-test and statistical significance was set at P<0.05.
Results: A patient had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) with an HbA1c value of 6.5% and died before the second month sample collection; another patient became critically ill; therefore, 19 patients completed the study. Before the commencement of MDR-TB therapy, two patients had pre-diabetes with HbA1c values of 6.0% and 5.8% while the HbA1c values of the remaining patients were less than 5.7%. There was a significant reduction in the mean HbA1c level at 2 months post therapy compared with the baseline. However, the HbA1c levels increased slightly after the 2nd month of therapy but no significant change was observed in the HbA1c levels at 4 and 6 months of MDR-TB therapy compared with baseline.
Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is not common among Nigerians with MDR-TB and MDR-TB drug  regimen might have an acute effect on glycaemic changes in patients with MDR-TB.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Glycaemic change, Glycated haemoglobin, Multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy

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Glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis infection during 6 months of treatment