Re-emergence of monkeypox in Nigeria: a cause for concern and public enlightenment

A Fowotade, T.O. Fasuyi, R.A. Bakare

 

Abstract

Monkey pox infection is a zoonotic infection transmitted by direct or indirect contact with blood, body fluids and lesions of an infected animal. Human to human spread of Monkey pox has been described and infection is usually self-limiting, with an incubation period of 6-16 days. In Nigeria, the last case of monkey pox infection was recorded over 46 years ago. The recent emergence in Nigeria occurred in the year 2017 and was reported to have spread to 24 states with 228 suspected individuals affected. Laboratory diagnosis, as well as management and prevention of monkey pox infection in Nigeria, remain challenging as Nigeria is a resource-poor country with limited infrastructure, technical skill and training which is required in making a diagnosis. The ability of the monkey pox virus to evolve, its potential bioterrorism potential, as well as its recent emergence in Nigeria further justifies the need for improving the understanding of the presentation and prevention of monkey pox infection.

Keywords: monkey pox, emerging virus, Nigeria, rash, zoonosis, orthopox

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Re-emergence of monkeypox in Nigeria a cause for concern and public enlightenment

Antimicrobial resistance pattern of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on carbapenems

E.K. Oladipo, O.A. Ajibade, I.J. Adeosun, E.H. Awoyelu, S.B. Akinade, O.A. Alabi, O.A. Ayilara

 

Abstract

Background: Carbapenems are the most effective and important  therapeutic options to serious infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. However, Carbepenems resistant  isolates of  Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeroginosa are increasing worldwide. This study, therefore, was carried out to determine the resistance pattern of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli to Carbapenems.

Methods: Fifty (50) E. coli and forty seven (47) Pseudomonas aeruginosa  isolates were studied. Antibiotic  Susceptibility test was performed as recommended by the CLSI. The antibiotics used were Ertapenem,  Imipenem, Colistin Sulphate, Levofloxacin, and Piperacillin/Tazobactam.

Results: Out of 97 clinical isolates subjected to drug susceptibilities test,  Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed resistance to Ertapenem (87.2%); followed by Levofloxacin (19.1%), Colistin sulphate (12.8%),  Piperacillin/tazobactan (4.3%) and Imipenem (2.1%) while E.coli displayed resistance to Ertapenem (30%), Levofloxacin (20%) and Colistin sulphate
(4%). Interestingly, E coli was susceptible to Imipenem (0%) and   Piperacillin/tazobactan (0%). A significant effect of Ertapenem on  Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded. Also a significant effect of  Piperacillin/Tazobactam was recorded on E coli. No significant effect was recorded among the other antibiotics on P aeruginosa or E coli.

Conclusion: There is a high level of Carbapenems resistance among the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to Escherichia coli in this study. Considering the therapeutic value of Carbapenems as one of the last options for the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, rational Carbapenems usage is essential to reduce selective pressure over Enterobacteriaceae andPseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

Keywords: Carbapenems, Antibiotics, Nosocomial, Susceptibility

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Antimicrobial resistance pattern of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on carbapenems

Public health implications of Salmonella species contamination of naira notes obtained from butchers in Abakaliki meat market, Ebonyi state

I.B. Moses, E.N. Ugbo, I.R. Iroha, E.G. Ukpai, S.C. Eluu, D.C. Ilang, S.N. Otozi

 

Abstract

Daily transactions have made paper currencies to pass through many  hands, and pathogens become imposed on them before they are finally deposited in banks. This study evaluates the public health implications of Salmonella species contamination of naira notes obtained from butchers in Abakaliki meat market, Ebonyi State. A total of 95 samples of naira notes in different denominations (N5 to N1000) were randomly collected from butchers within Abakaliki metropolis between the months of March and May, 2016. All the naira note samples were analysed using standard  microbiological procedures. A total of nine (9.5 %) Salmonella spp isolates were obtained from the 95 naira note samples. All the Salmonella spp  isolates were completely resistant (100 %) to ceftazidime. The highest susceptibility frequency was observed for ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem, imipenem, and ofloxacin with values ranging from 88.9 % – 77.8 %. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean percentage resistance and susceptibility of the Salmonella spp isolates (P ˂ 0.05). Most of the Salmonella spp isolates exhibited multi-drug resistant traits as they were resistant to at least two different classes of antibiotics. The average multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) of the Salmonella spp isolates was 0.35. This study shows that ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem, imipenem, and ofloxacin are still effective in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by Salmonella spp. Proper and hygienic handling of paper currencies is of public health importance so as to avert health challenges associated with microbial contamination of bank notes especially Salmonella spp.

KeywordsSalmonella, Naira notes, butchers, antibiotics, public health

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Public health implications of Salmonella species contamination of naira notes obtained from butchers in Abakaliki meat market, Ebonyi state