Applying lessons learnt from Ebola for effective COVID-19 response in Africa

*1Aiyenuro, A. E., 2Onyeani, C. O., and 2Uche, N. C.

 1Team Lead and Research Analyst, Research4Knowledge, Lagos, Nigeria                                                   

1Network officer, Loving Gaze IO, SHOPS Plus Tuberculosis USAID Project                                          

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

3Quality Assurance Officer, Loving Gaze IO, SHOPS Plus Tuberculosis USAID Project

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348138642956

 

Abstract:

 The Ebola virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission via direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials contaminated with these fluids. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, attracting the notice of regional authorities and rapidly drawing global attention. In less than 4 months, COVID-19 spread through almost all countries and regions. The COVID-19 pandemic is wreaking havoc on the world economy, in addition to creating the current global public health crisis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 28,616 cases of Ebola were detected, and 11,310 people died during the outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. As of 17th December 2020, COVID-19 has killed 1,658,062 people, and positive cases have topped 74 million globally. Africa has suffered several outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD); learning from the past is a good way to prepare for the future. We hope to highlight some of the lessons learnt from Africa’s response to previous epidemics that can help in the fight against the ravaging coronavirus pandemic.  Continue reading “Applying lessons learnt from Ebola for effective COVID-19 response in Africa”

Neglect of common infectious disease outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic: an impending crisis in Nigeria?

Soyemi, T.

Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348128388296

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are major challenges of healthcare system in Nigeria. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID19) pandemic has disrupted many systems including healthcare at all levels by creating disparities in the treatment, prevention, resource allocation and control of diseases in Nigeria. Premised on the foundation of circulating news and fact-checking platforms, this paper provides empirical evidence on varying perceptions on COVID-19 pandemic and apparent neglect of other infectious diseases while giving a critical analysis and comparison between them. Continue reading “Neglect of common infectious disease outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic: an impending crisis in Nigeria?”

A review of COVID-19 vaccines strategies and anti-vaxxers theories

*1Adesokan, A., and 2Obeid, M. A.

1PreciseMed, Glasgow, United Kingdom                                 

2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University Irbid, Jordan

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract:

In what is a global record time of getting the COVID-19 vaccines available within 11 months, the world has equally been faced with several myths and conspiracy theories dissuading the public from accepting vaccination as an important measure in the response to the pandemic. We reviewed the leading conspiracy theories and balanced these with the scientific basis of viral transmission and replication and the broad role of vaccination in tackling this challenge. We briefly examined the design of the leading vaccines, and provided recommendations for worldwide COVID-19 distribution, acceptance and use. Continue reading “A review of COVID-19 vaccines strategies and anti-vaxxers theories”

Prognostic implication of hypocalcaemia in COVID-19: a systematic review

1Azeez, T. A.,2Lakoh, S., 3Bamidele, O. T., 4Ekhaiyeme, E., and 5Nwosu, S. A.

1Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria                           

2Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, Freetown, Sierra Leone

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria                 

4Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

5College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2347035728747

 

 

 

Abstract:

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic affecting several millions of people worldwide. It has varied clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to critical illness. It has led to the mortality of several affected individuals. However, the prognosis seems to vary from one person to the other and efforts are being made to identify the prognostic factors. Hypocalcaemia has been identified as a poor prognostic factor with a high frequency among individuals affected with COVID-19. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of hypocalcaemia among COVID-19 patients and identify the poor prognostic factors associated with the presence of hypocalcaemia in COVID-19 patients. Electronic medical databases were searched for publications on the prognostic implications of hypocalcaemia in COVID-19 infection, and relevant articles were selected for systematic review following PRISMA algorithm. The prevalence of hypocalcaemia among patients with COVID-19 was 40.0-74.4%. There was a significant association between the rate of hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as septic shock and hypocalcaemia in patients with COVID-19. Hypocalcaemia is also associated with a higher mortality rate in these patients. COVID-19 patients with hypocalcaemia tend to have elevated C-reactive protein, interleukin6, alanine transaminase, procalcitonin, serum creatinine and low albumin. Hypocalcaemia is common in COVID-19 patients and is a poor prognostic factor in these patients. Presence of hypocalcaemia is associated with a severe illness and even death. Continue reading “Prognostic implication of hypocalcaemia in COVID-19: a systematic review”

Recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of sepsis: a review

*1Adegboro, B. A., 1Imran, J., 2Abayomi, S. A., 3Sanni, E. O., and 4Biliaminu, S. A.

Departments of 1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria  3Haematology, and 4Chemical Pathology, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Sepsis is a syndrome consisting of physiological, pathological and biochemical anomalies caused by infectious agents. It causes clinical organ dysfunction, which is identified by an acute increase in the Sequential (sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of two or more points. SOFA score is a score of three components that can be easily used at the bedside to track the clinical status of a patient while on admission, and these are altered respiratory rate of ≥ 22 breaths/minute, altered mental status, and systolic blood pressure of ≤ 100 mmHg. A patient with SOFA score of ≥ 2 has an attributable 2 – 25-fold increased risk of mortality compared to a patient with SOFA score of ˂ 2. This present review provides information on the new definition of sepsis and septic shock, aetiology, pathophysiology, biochemical, pathological and haematological changes, morbidity and mortality parameters, management, and prognostic factors in patients with sepsis. Continue reading “Recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of sepsis: a review”

Quality of metagenomic DNA extracted for molecular identification of microorganisms from CSF samples of patients with suspected cerebrospinal meningitis in northern Nigeria

*1,3Peletiri, I. C., 1Ikeh, E. I., 2Nna, E., 3Ndike, U. P., 4Usman, Y. B., 5Durfa, L. D., 6Okonkwo, C. N., 7Murtala, R., and 2Nnajide, C. R.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

2Safety Molecular Pathology Laboratory, The Molecular Pathology Institute, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Medical Microbiology & Parasitology Laboratories, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

4Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

5Microbiology Laboratory, Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

6Medical Laboratory Department, Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria

7Medical Laboratory Services, Ahmad Sani Yariman Specialist Hospital, Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:

Background: Following an increase in the practice of starting antimicrobial therapy prior to clinical sample collection, the ability to confirm pathogenic microorganisms of bacterial meningitis has decreased by approximately 30%. Culture results may be false negative when fastidious or culture-resistant bacteria are involved or when patient samples are obtained after antimicrobial therapy has started. Molecular diagnosis using PCR can be performed directly on clinical samples after metagenomic DNA (mDNA) extraction not requiring live organisms for a positive result. The specific objectives of this study are to perform mDNA extraction directly from cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) using appropriate spin column method, and to determine the quality of the mDNA elute.

Methodology: Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 210 patients with suspected acute cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) in the Federal Capital Territory and some States in Northern Nigeria during the 2017 and 2018 outbreak seasons. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from approximately 200µL of CSF specimens using the Qiagen QIAamp(R) DNA Mini kit specific for bacterial agents only. DNA quality check was performed on all DNA elutes using fluorometric, spectrophotometric and agarose gel electrophoresis methods.      Continue reading “Quality of metagenomic DNA extracted for molecular identification of microorganisms from CSF samples of patients with suspected cerebrospinal meningitis in northern Nigeria”

Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy volunteers and hospitalized patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: prevalence, resistance profile, and associated risk factors

[1],[2]Soré, S., 3Sanou, S., 3Sawadogo, Y., 1Béogo, S., 3Dakouo, S. N. P.,                    4Djamalladine, M. D., 1lboudo K. S., 2Ouoba, B., ³Zoungrana, J.,                               ³Poda, A., 2Ouédraogo, A. S., and 1,2Sanou

1Tengandogo University Hospital, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

2Saint Thomas d’Aquin University, Doctoral School of Science, Health and Technology, Burkina Faso         

3Souro Sanou University Hospital, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso                                         

4National Higher Institute of Science and Technology of Abeche, Abeche, Chad        

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; (00 226) 72 04 29 15

Abstract:

Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are a serious challenge to patients’ treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ESBL-PE, investigate the associated resistance, and analyze the associated risk factors for acquisition of ESBL-PE.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on healthy volunteers and inpatients. After obtaining informed consent, rectal swabs were collected from each participant for isolation of Enterobacteriaceae on Hektoen enteric agar containing 4µg/L cefotaxime. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified using biochemical tests and ESBL production was confirmed by the double-disc synergy test of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Antibiotic susceptibility test of each isolate was done by the disc diffusion method and interpreted using the recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) clinical breakpoints version 5.0. Continue reading “Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy volunteers and hospitalized patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: prevalence, resistance profile, and associated risk factors”

Characterization of biofilm formation in clinical urinary isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from five hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria

 1Orjih, C. I., 2Ajayi, A., 1,3Alao, F. O., 1Adeleye, A. I., and *2,4Smith, S. I.  

 1Department of Microbiology, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

2Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria                       

4Mountain Top University, Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Ogun State, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]                              

Abstract:                                                                                               

Background: Biofilm formation by pathogens is of great clinical importance as it mediates persistence and resistance to antibiotics, hence posing difficulty in treatment and management of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biofilm forming potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urine samples of females with urinary tract infection and to detect the presence of clumping factor (clfA) and intracellular adhesion (icaA) encoding genes.                                                           

Methodology: A total of 50 S. aureus were obtained from urine samples of women in five hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. Isolates were confirmed by standard biochemical and novobiocin susceptibility tests. The isolates were screened for biofilm formation using three methods; Congo-red agar (CRA), tube, and tissue culture plate (TCP) methods. Detection of clfA and icaA genes was done by PCR.          Continue reading “Characterization of biofilm formation in clinical urinary isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from five hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria”

Comparative analysis of poliovirus-specific IgA and cytokine levels in the sera of Ascaris lumbricoides-infected and helminth-negative Nigerian children after oral poliovirus vaccination

Akinwande, K. S., and *Arinola, G. O

Department of Immunology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence to: [email protected]; +234 80 23451520

Abstract:

Background: Intestinal helminth infection is associated with altered immune responses and compromised vaccine efficacy in infected children. Altered immune response due to Ascaris lumbricoides infection may compromise efficacy of oral poliovirus vaccination in children. There is no information on humoral immune response during oral poliovirus (OP) vaccination of A. lumbricoides–infected Nigerian children. The objective of this study is to determine the serum levels of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor–alpha TNF-α, interferongamma IFN–γ, interleukins -4, -6, -8, -10) and poliovirus-specific IgA (PV-IgA) antibody in children infected with A. lumbricoides compared with helminth-negative children (control) before and after oral poliovirus vaccination. Continue reading “Comparative analysis of poliovirus-specific IgA and cytokine levels in the sera of Ascaris lumbricoides-infected and helminth-negative Nigerian children after oral poliovirus vaccination”

Haemoglobin phenotypes and the risk of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among blood donors in northwest Nigeria: clinical implications in the practice of tropical transfusion medicine

1Kani, K. M., 2Ibrahim, Z., 2Habeeb, A.,2Ibrahim, U. A., and *4Ahmed, S. G.

1Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Nigeria

2Department of Haematology, Rasheed Shekoni Teaching Hospital, Dutse, Nigeria

3Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

4Department of Haematology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; +2348034418015

Abstract:

 Background: In malaria-endemic populations, sickle cell trait (SCT) protects against both severe and non-severe malaria, but inconsistencies exist about protective effect of SCT on asymptomatic malarial parasitemia (AMP). Surprisingly, the effect of Hb-phenotypes on AMP has not been explored among blood donors in Nigeria or other malaria-endemic countries, where risks of AMP and transfusion transmitted malaria (TTM) are high. The objective of this study is to determine risk of AMP with respect to donor Hb-phenotypes (SCT versus HbAA), and elucidate clinical implications of AMP with respect to risk of TTM vis-à-vis the practice of transfusion medicine in Nigeria, and by implication other malaria-endemic tropical countries.

Methodology: Analysis of 100 blood donors with AMP (cases) and 100 donors without AMP (controls) was performed. Frequencies of SCT and HbAA (determined by Hb electrophoresis) among cases and controls were compared by X2-test. Risks of AMP (detected by microscopy) with respect to Hb-phenotypes were expressed as Odds ratios (OR) by case-control logistic regression. Continue reading “Haemoglobin phenotypes and the risk of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among blood donors in northwest Nigeria: clinical implications in the practice of tropical transfusion medicine”