Evaluation of Usefulness of Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Malaria in Nigeria

DO Ogbolu, OA Terry Alli, AS Nassar, OO Ajagbe

 

Abstract

Microscopy has been the most common technique for the diagnosis of malaria in south western Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of PCR for malaria diagnosis in south western Nigeria. A total of 450 samples submitted for malaria diagnosis at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife between the months of January and December, 2009 were used. Methods used included Giemsa staining procedure for estimation of parasite densities and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of malaria parasite in the whole blood. Using microscopy as reference gold standard, patients comprising 120 males and 330 females with age ranging between less than 1 and 60 samples were used. In all, about 255 (56.7 %) of the samples were positive for microscopy, while 75 (16.7 %) with high parasitaemia on microscopy were positive for PCR analysis. The study concluded that PCR for diagnosis of malaria has sensitivity of 29.4% and specificity of 100% using crude method of DNA extraction while the use of DNA extraction kit has sensitivity of 90.2% and specificity of 100%, hence effort should be geared towards increasing the sensitivity and reduce the cost of doing the test in low resource country like Nigeria.

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Group B Streptococcus Carriage during Late Pregnancy in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

A Onipede, O Adefusi, A Adeyemi, E Adejuyigbe, A Oyelese, T Ogunniyi

 

Abstract

This study determined the prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in late pregnancy and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated GBS as well as the impact of GBS infections on pregnancy related clinical outcome with a view of providing an epidemiological baseline data for policy formulation in the teaching hospital. It is an observational and cross-sectional hospital based study. One hundred and fifty pregnant women from 35-40 weeks of gestation were purposively selected and included in the study from May to December 2010. Vaginal swab samples were aseptically collected from the subjects after informed consent. The samples were assayed for presence of GBS. The susceptibility pattern of the isolated GBS to different antibiotics were assessed using disc diffusion and agar dilution techniques based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards institute(CLSI) standards. The result showed prevalence of 11.3% GBS vaginal colonization which increased with age. There was no significant association between GBS colonization status and age (p >0.05)), gestational age (p >0.05)), gravidity (p >0.05) and obstetric risk factors (p >0.05)). There was no incidence of GBS infection observed. Although, all (17) the GBS isolates were 100% resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin and clindamycin. Resistance to cefotaxime (11.8%), erythromycin (64.7%) and vancomycin 70.6% were observed. Group B Streptococcus colonization in vagina in late pregnancy has been established in the antenatal clinic of the teaching hospital with the attendant risk to the fetus in the population of those affected. There were high and multiple resistance patterns of the GBS isolates to different antibiotics in this study. This calls for a review of the present hospital policy to include the routine screening of GBS during antenatal visits and surveillance.

Epidemiological Significance of the Colonization of Streptococcus Agalactiae in the Anorectum and Endocervix of Non-Parturients in Jos, Nigeria

DS Nsagha, HLF Kamga, JCN Assob, AL Njunda, CSS Bello, YT Kandakai-Olukemi

 

Abstract

Knowledge of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage and infections in Africa is very scanty but few cases have been reported in Nigeria in particular. Streptococcus agalactiae has been reported to cause infections and diseases in non-parturients and adults ranging from bacteremia, osteomylitis, arthritis, and endocarditis to breast abscess among others, hence the necessity for this study. Fifty six non-pregnant women of different age groups and social status were screened for GBS in Plateau State Specialist Hospital using the Christie, Atkins and Munch-Petersen (CAMP) and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Two (3.6 %) of the 56 women were positive for GBS. The 2 isolates were all from the anorectum. The endocervix yielded no culture. The antibiogram showed that ampicillin is the drug of choice with all isolates (100%) sensitive to the drug. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients and GBS carriage (P>0.05). This survey shows a much lower carriage proportion than that reported in Ibadan, Nigeria from non-parturients.

Key words: Streptococcus agalactiae, epidemiology, anorectum, endocervix, non-parturients

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Epidemiological Significance of the Colonization of Streptococcus Agalactiae in the Anorectum and Endocervix of Non-Parturients in Jos, Nigeria