Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Kaduna State

Z Sheyin, BD Jatau, AI Mamman, AJ Randawa

 

Abstract

Objective: To determine the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV)  genotypes and subtypes among blood donors and outpatients attendees positive for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV).
Justification: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to be a major disease burden on the world and Man is the only known natural host of Hepatitis C virus (Chivaliez and Pawlotsky, 2007). There is no published data on the prevalence of the genotypes and subtypes of HCV in Kaduna State.
Setting: Three hospitals one in each of the 3 senatorial zones in Kaduna State.
Patients: Blood donors who reported for blood donation and outpatient department attendees.
Method: Antibody detection by a third generation HCV ELISA (Biotech Laboratories, UK); HCV RNA and genotyping by Reverse Transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with genotype-specific primers. (Sacace Biotechnologies, UK).
Results: of the 259 plasma specimens screened for Hepatitis C virus in this study, 20(7.7%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by ELISA and 16(6.2%) of the antibodies positive specimen were positive for HCV RNA. Of the 139 blood donors tested, 8 (5.8%) were HCV RNA positive. Similarly, 120 were tested from the outpatient Department attendees and 8 (6.7%) were HCV RNA positive. Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b was found in the entire HCV RNA positive sample.
Conclusions: The findings of 6.2% prevalence of HCV infection based on HCV RNA test confirmed that there is Hepatitis C virus in Kaduna State with genotype 1b as the predominant genotype found in all the three senatorial zones.

A Critical Review on HIV/AIDS and Wound Care

EP Weledji, HLF Kamga, JC Assob, DS Nsagha

 

Abstract

Wound infections in AIDS patients increase discomfort, prolong hospital stay, render an additional burden upon an already debilitated patient and weaken the immune system further. Treatment must relate to the aetiology of the wound and take into account the patients underlying health problems. The treatment of wounds in HIV-AIDS patients is not different from the standard treatment. There are wound -related criteria for selecting the appropriate types of dressing. The best dressing for postoperative wound healing by secondary intention is unknown. Continuing wound evaluation and the appraisal of what dressing is useful for the type of wound and stage of healing is the basis of optimum wound care Optimum wound care, emotional support; health education will enhance both the emotional and physical wellbeing of the HIV-AIDS patient.

Key words: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), wound infection, delayed wound healing, optimum wound care, dressing types, nutrition, and pain control

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A Critical Review on HIVAIDS and Wound Care

The Sero-Prevalence of Parvovirus Antibodies among Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Zaria

H Ujo, AI Mamman, A Aliyu, GO Ogunrinde

 

Abstract

Parvovirus is an erythrovirus that infects red cell precursors in individuals with conditions characterised by a high red cell turnover like sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia. Arthritis, vasculitis, carditis, bone marrow failure, and the slapped cheek appearance have been associated with Parvovirus B19 infection. Recurrent blood transfusion is a risk factor for the B19 serotype of Parvovirus infection, with the P antigen as the mediator for erythroid invasion presenting as transient erythroblastopaenia (TEB). Although TEB is self-limiting a few cases may progress to aplastic anaemia. Previous studies report seroprevalence rates of between 44 and 71%, but the dearth of data on the seroprevalence of B19 parvovirus strain in our region prompted this study. Venous blood samples from 239 children aged 1to 15 years of consenting parents and guardians were screened for Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies using the ELISA technique and antibody titer assessed spectrophotometrically. All the participants have sickle cell anaemia, but were in the steady state. Of this serum samples from 204 (85.4%) participants were positive for IgG antibodies against Parvovirus B19 while 35 (14.6%) were negative for the IgG antibodies.). The age-group with the highest prevalence is 10-12year group with seroprevalence rate of 88.9%. The overall seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 antibodies is 85.4 %. The seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 antibodies is high in all socio-economic groups. Antibody prevalence is higher in the
non-transfused group suggesting that other factors than transfusion play a role in the spread of the B19 strain of Parvovirus B19.