The Sero-Prevalence of Parvovirus Antibodies among Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Zaria

H Ujo, AI Mamman, A Aliyu, GO Ogunrinde



Parvovirus is an erythrovirus that infects red cell precursors in individuals with conditions characterised by a high red cell turnover like sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia. Arthritis, vasculitis, carditis, bone marrow failure, and the slapped cheek appearance have been associated with Parvovirus B19 infection. Recurrent blood transfusion is a risk factor for the B19 serotype of Parvovirus infection, with the P antigen as the mediator for erythroid invasion presenting as transient erythroblastopaenia (TEB). Although TEB is self-limiting a few cases may progress to aplastic anaemia. Previous studies report seroprevalence rates of between 44 and 71%, but the dearth of data on the seroprevalence of B19 parvovirus strain in our region prompted this study. Venous blood samples from 239 children aged 1to 15 years of consenting parents and guardians were screened for Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies using the ELISA technique and antibody titer assessed spectrophotometrically. All the participants have sickle cell anaemia, but were in the steady state. Of this serum samples from 204 (85.4%) participants were positive for IgG antibodies against Parvovirus B19 while 35 (14.6%) were negative for the IgG antibodies.). The age-group with the highest prevalence is 10-12year group with seroprevalence rate of 88.9%. The overall seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 antibodies is 85.4 %. The seroprevalence of Parvovirus B19 antibodies is high in all socio-economic groups. Antibody prevalence is higher in the
non-transfused group suggesting that other factors than transfusion play a role in the spread of the B19 strain of Parvovirus B19.