Viruses and Cancer

PA Adegboyega

 

Abstract

Viruses are ubiquitous and are also the pathogenic agents that are most commonly associated with neoplastic transformation of cells of several organs in human beings – thereby causing cancer of epithelial cells (carcinomas) or cancer of mesenchymal cells (leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas) depending on the type and location of the infected host cell. This review highlights the six major groups of viruses that have established aetiological association with cancer in human populations. The epidemiology and the processes through which these pathogens cause malignant transformation of the infected host cells are discussed – with particular emphasis on the evolving and changing natures of the diseases as they parallel changes in human behaviours. Also discussed is a brief overview of the current understanding of molecular pathology as they emerge with the advent of new technological capabilities for studying these processes at subcellular (genomic) levels.

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Viruses and Cancer

Reference Values of CD4-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Seronegative Pregnant Women in Buea, Cameroon

RA Tanjong, J Atashili, HLF Kamga, G Ikomey, NT Akenji, MP Ndumbe

 

Abstract

Pregnancy is a physiologically immunocompromised state, during which alterations in T-lymphocyte subsets may occur. Reference values for CD4 counts in pregnancy have not been established particularly in sub-Saharan populations. This study aimed at describing expected (‘normal’) values of CD4 counts in healthy HIV-negative pregnant women so these could serve as reference for assessing the progress of HIV disease in HIV-infected pregnant women. The study was conducted in antenatal clinics in the Buea Health District, Cameroon. All eligible women were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Whole blood samples collected were tested for HIV using Determine 1/2 and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 rapid tests. The CD4+ absolute counts were assessed using the Partec Cyflow Counter and the CD4 easy count kit. A total of 279 women were analysed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 47 years. A vast majority (95%) of participants were in the second or third trimester of gestation. Slightly less than half (43%) were primiparous. The CD4 cell count ranged from 321 to 1808 cells/μl . This distribution was approximately normal with a mean of 851cells/μl, a median of 831cells/μl , and a standard deviation of 254cells/μl . The expected (‘normal’) range, covering 95% of the sample was 438-1532 cells/μl. Participants with malaria parasitaemia tended to have a lower CD4 count (lower on average by 115 cells/μl, P<0.001). CD4 cell counts in HIV-negative pregnant women appear similar to those of the general population of HIV-negatives. These values can thus be used as references when assessing HIV-seropositive pregnant women.

Keywords: CD4 counts, HIV-negative, pregnancy

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Reference Values of CD4-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Seronegative Pregnant Women in Buea, Cameroon

 

 

Cytomegalovirus in Immunosuppressed Patients: A Silent and Potential Killer.

A Fowotade, VU Nwadike

 

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised individuals. This review will concentrate on understanding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnostic options for CMV infection.

Keywords: Review, Cytomegalovirus, Immunosuppressed

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Cytomegalovirus in Immunosuppressed Patients A Silent and Potential Killer