The use of morphological and cell wall chemical markers in the identification of Streptomyces species associated with Actinomycetoma

Me Hamid

 

Abstract

Most aerobic, filamentous, spore-forming actinomycetes are saprophytes but some are considered pathogens of humans and animals, notable examples are the causal agents of mycetoma. The present study aimed to identify Streptomyces spp. isolated from actinomycetoma cases in Sudan by examining some morphological traits and analyzing the cell wall composition. Nineteen Streptomyces strains isolated from purulent materials of patients with mycetoma (human) or fistulous withers (donkeys) were included in the study. Isolates were tentatively identified as Streptomyces species based on morphological and cultural characteristics. Cell wall analysis of isolates yielded LLdiaminopimelic
acid (LL-DAP) which authenticates that the isolates are members of genus Streptomyces. The isolates, though they are Streptomyces, but are variable phenotypes. The study concluded that using few selected criteria, as above, would allow identification of unknown actinomycetoma agent to the genus level. The study also assumes that apparently limitless, numbers of saprophytic Streptomyces enter human or animal skin tissue causing actinomycetoma and perhaps other complications in man and animals.

KEYWORDS: Actinomycetoma, Streptomyces species, Madura foot, Sudan

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The use of morphological and cell wall chemical markers in the identification of Streptomyces species associated with Actinomycetoma

Lipid profile of drug naive HIV patients in a tertiary health facility in Lagos, Nigeria

MO Uwandu, AP Okwuraiwe, OS Amoo, RA Audu, RN Okoye, CT Oparaugo, CK Onwuamah, OA Magbagbeola

 

Abstract

Aim: To determine the effect of HIV syndrome on lipid profile in a cohort of Nigerians.
Objective: To determine the concentrations of total cholesterol (Tchol), triglyceride (TGL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in HIV positive drug naive patients as against HIV negative people.
Methods: This study examined the lipid profiles of 50 HIV positive individuals (test group), and 50 HIV negative individuals (control group) at the Human Virology Laboratory of Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Lagos, Nigeria. Informed consent was obtained and the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of NIMR approved the study. A questionnaire based assessment was provided for the individuals to complete, before 5 ml of blood was taken by venopuncture. Blood collected in plain tubes was centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes and the serum obtained, used for the various lipid profile tests mentioned above.
Statistical analysis on data from the questionnaire was done using Epi info 2000 (CDC).
Results: The median lipid profile values for the control group were 168, 85, 99 and 58 mg/dl for Tchol, TGL, HDL and LDL respectively. Conversely, median lipid profile values for the HIV positive patients were 145, 98, 53, and 67 mg/dl for Tchol, TGL, HDL and LDL respectively. P values greater than 0.05 were taken to indicate an insignificant difference between the lipid profiles of the two groups.
Conclusion: Based on results obtained, there were significant differences in the Tchol and HDL values between the two groups, indicating a possible effect of HIV on lipid profile for drug naive patients.

Key words: lipid profile, HIV, TGL, HDL, LDL, Tchol.

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Lipid profile of drug naive HIV patients in a tertiary health facility in Lagos, Nigeria

Study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari-2011

M Mohammad, A Akhavan, F Abedian, AM Mirabi

 

Abstract

Introduction and Objectives: Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive function and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. The prevalence and severity of dental caries‚gingivitis and periodontitis is high in patients with mental retardation. This shift to a diseased state may lead to the experience of a high mortality from septicemia‚ sepsis‚ pneumonia and endocarditis.Our purpose was to study oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari and to estimate D% (percentage with untreated decayed teeth) and DMFT% (percentage of population affected with dental caries)
Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional type in which Plaque samples were collected from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to identify the microorganisms. In this study anaerobic bacteria were not isolated because the instrument was not available in the laboratory. The information has been analyzed by X2 T-test methods by SPSS 17 software.
Results: The isolated microorganisms were: pnuemococci S(37.7%); Streptococci sp(18.8%); E.coli (16.7%); Staphylococcus(1.4%); Neisseria sp(45/6%); Salmonella(8.7%); Proteus(3.6%); Diphteroid (4.2%); Pseudomonas(0.7%). The percentage of resistant strains was found to be highest with penicillin(67.9%) and lowest with vancomycin(11%).
Conclusion: D% between all the patients were (66.66%) . Bacterial flora in mentally retarded patients were significanty higher in frequency than in normal persons. With improvement in oral health care, we can decrease
these undesirable changes.

Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari

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Study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari 2011