Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon: Implications of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Chlamydia Trachomatis and Treponema Pallidum

NRR Dongang, MML Koanga, NAR Ngono, M Wankam, NG Djiakam, B Djimeli, E Fossi, EC Brulet, PH Amvam Zollo

 

Abstract

Infection with high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) such as HPVs 16 and 18 is the main cause of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV 2), Treponema pallidum and some sexual behaviour on malignant progression of cervical lesion in Douala, Cameroon. From July 2009 to January 2010, we performed routine cervical smears to 163 consenting women, who completed a questionnaire on risk factors of cervical cancer. Blood samples were obtained for each of these women and used for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis, HSV 2 and Treponema pallidum. Results obtained showed that 26/163 (17 LSIL and 9 HSIL) of women had abnormal cytology, 75.5% (123/163) had HSV 2 infection, 19% (31/163) infected by Chlamydia trachomatis and 4.3% (7/163) infected by Treponema pallidum. Among the LSIL-positive women 35.3% (6/17) and 94.1% (16/17) were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and HSV 2 respectively. Among those with HSIL cytology, 22.2% (2/9), 66.7% (6/9) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively had Chlamydia trachomatis, HSV 2 and Treponema pallidum. High parity and pregnancy rate was observed among women with positive cytology. Our finding shown high rate of cervical abnormalities among women infected with HSV 2; and among those with a higher number of parities and pregnancies. These results suggest that further investigations should be made in Cameroon to access real burden of these risk factors in the progression and persistence of cervical lesion.

Key words: risk factors, cervical cancer, HSV 2, Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted infections.

Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon Implications of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Chlamydia Trachomatis and Treponema Pallidum

Weight gradient and physiological responses to cation-treatment by Salmonella enterica-infected rabbits

TI Ojiezeh, NI Ibeh, FJ Okoko

 

Abstract

Interest in immunomodulators is increasing following the recognition that positive immunomodulators could be useful intervention tools in the control of diseases and infections. An attempt to determine the effects of some of the cations on body weight and physiological reactions was carried out. Thirty five female adult New Zealand white rabbits grouped into seven, 5 pairs per each of these cations (Zn 2+, Cu 2+ and Mg 2+ ), and supplemented with 1ml/day of single and double strength concentrations of cation for 24 days; the control was not supplemented with any cation. During the study period the rabbits were fed with Guinea grower mash and water ad libitum. There was regular taking of body weight of the rabbits using a top- loading weighing balance, while feed consumption, rectal temperature, stool frequency, physical appearance and behavioural changes were noted. Weight gradient studies show gradual increase in body weight following cation treatment of rabbits, but after challenging the various groups with oral administration of 0.5 ml of 10 6 CFU / ml of saline suspension of Salmonella. enterica for three exposures on alternative days, there was a progressive decrease in body weight of rabbits. However, there was no significant difference in stool dropping, body weakness, dullness and rough furs in all the groups. Effects were more pronounced in control group than in cation supplemented groups. This result, therefore, provide evidence of the significance of zinc, copper and magnesium oral supplementation in mammals and, of course among these three cations, copper appears to be more effective in improving body weight gain, though the mechanism is not known.

Keyword: Trace elements, Body weight, Physiological responses, Salmonella enterica

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Weight gradient and physiological responses to cation-treatment by Salmonella enterica-infected rabbits

Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria

AP Okwuraiwe, OB Salu, CK Onwuamah, OS Amoo, NN Odunukwe, RA Audu

 

Abstract

Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV DNA levels, and severe liver disease.
Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the pattern of HBV viral load levels of patients assessing management in Nigeria.
Method: Variables included sociodemographics like age, sex, religion, income, educational background and residence. The COBAS Amplicor automated Analyzer (PCR based) was used to assay the virus quantitatively.
Results: 594 patients were tested from 2008 to 2009. Statistical analysis was done using Epi info version 2002 and test of significance by Kruskal-Wallis. Mean age of the patients was 36.8 (ranging from 9 to 69) years. HBV viral titre ranged between 4,145 and 68,011,800 DNA copies/ml.
Conclusion: There was a high occurrence of viral titre in the population studied. High viral load is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. A policy earmarked to combat this virus in Nigeria is hereby solicited.

Key words: HBV infection, HBV DNA, Nigeria

Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria