Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes at a tertiary care hospital in southwestern Nigeria

O.A. Adesanya, V.U. Nwadike, O.O. Adesanya, A.B. Lamina

 

Abstract

Hospital acquired infections are a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. They are frequently caused by organisms residing in healthcare environment, including contaminated medical equipment like stethoscopes. There is limited awareness of health workers of the contribution of contaminated hospital equipment to nosocomial infections. Hence we aimed to determine the level of bacterial contamination and bacterial profile of the isolates from stethoscopes at our centre- a tertiary care hospital in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

To achieve this, 2 stethoscopes were selected from each of the clinical care units in the hospital and studied. Specimens were collected using moistened sterile cotton swab from the ear pieces and diaphragms of each stethoscope and processed following standard microbiological techniques. In all, 26 stethoscopes were studied. 46.2% (12) of the diaphragms cultured yielded growth of bacteria while only 11.5% (3) of the ear pieces cultured yielded a growth of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus (58.3%) was the most commonly cultured organism. Other organisms cultured included: Diphtheroids, Proteus species and Escherichia coli. 83.3% of the isolated organisms were gram positive while 16.7% were gram negative organisms.In conclusion,the study shows that there is a high level of contamination of stethoscopes in use by health care workers. Disinfection of stethoscopes before and after use is advocated to reduce the spread of infections.

Keywords: Stethoscopes, Contaminated medical equipment, Disinfection, Hospital acquired infections, Health care workers, Bacterial profile

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Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes at a tertiary care hospital in southwestern Nigeria

Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria among residents of a Nigerian University

F Ayoade, C.H. Ardern

 

Abstract

Hand washing is known to be an important preventive strategy and a major step in infection control. However, compliance is low in most communities. The present work investigated the relationship between the levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, Total Colony Counts was done and the isolates were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The results showed that 46% of the respondents wash their hands before eating food; 40% of the test population washes their hands after using the toilet; while none of the respondents wash their hands after handling money. The highest bacterial load was found in the 0-15 years age group. The most highly occurring isolate was Salmonella enterica(23.7%). These results confirm the low level of compliance to hand hygiene in the test population and underscores the need to effectively break the fecal–oral transmission route via hands through effective interventions such as hand washing with soap and water.

Keywords: enteropathogenic bacteria, hand washing, compliance

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Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria among residents of a Nigerian University

Multiple antibiotic resistance indices of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of muscle of catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) from selected markets in Ibadan, Nigeria

B.A. Saka, O.K. Adeyemo, A.O. Odeseye

 

Abstract

The extensive use and misuse of antimicrobials for treatment and prophylaxis in livestock production generally and aquaculture in particular is of great concern to environmental and public health. In Nigeria, regulation and monitoring of aquaculture and other livestock production activities at best is lax. Drug resistance pathogens have therefore been consistently reported in Nigeria.

Ninety-eight adult live fishes weighing an average of 684.88±141.73g were purchased at random from different live-fish selling points fortnightly over a fourteen-week period. Fish were anaesthetized using Tricaine Methane Sulfonate (MS222 and 15g of muscle excised and processed according to standard methods. Growth, isolation and characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila was accomplished using Rimler-Shotts agar medium which had been infused with ampicillin supplement for 24 hours and incubated at 37oC and appropriate biochemical tests.

Ten positive isolates (AH1-AH10) were subjected to culture and sensitivity test using the disc diffusion method on nutrient agar. Zones of growth inhibition around the colonies were observed, measured and characterized as sensitive, intermediate and resistant based on the Manual of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing method. All the isolates had MAR >0.2. Isolate AH9 had the highest MAR index (1). Three of the isolates (AH3, AH5 and AH8) had MAR indices of 0.89, while AH2, AH4 and AH7 had MAR indices of 0.67. This study established the resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from fish muscle to a wide range of antibiotic. The detection of high MAR A. hydrophila in muscle of fish intended for consumption is significant and could act as a potential source of resistant bacteria for humans. Further investigation into antimicrobial resistance is recommended.

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Multiple antibiotic resistance indices of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of muscle of catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) from selected markets in Ibadan, Nigeria