Intestinal helminthiasis in children in a suburb of Lagos, Nigeria: Evaluation of risk factors and habits

CK Onwuamah, JO Okwuzu, N Idika, E Meshack, T Gbajabiamilaa



Various risk factors have been known to predispose children to intestinal helminths infections. We evaluated the impact of multisectoral risk factors on infection prevalence in school children using questionnaire and stool examination.
Pupils’ hawking habits, schools, classes, antihelminthic prophylaxis, parents’ occupation and mothers’ educational status were the significant risk factors identified. Logistic regression identified four of the aforementioned factors, age, sex, disposal of excreta and/or septic tanks overflow into open drainages as factors influencing prevalence in this population. Irregular deworming probably reduced the effect of prophylactic use of antihelminthic on prevalence. Hawkers (odds ratio = 3.78) and pupils living in faeces contaminated environs were identified as at risk groups.
Public enlightenment campaigns on worms’ infestation control strategies, including the reduction of environmental contamination with faeces should reduce intestinal helminthiasis in these children.

African Journal of Clinical Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (2) 2007: pp. 107-113

Antimicrobial susceptibility of neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from patients attending private clinics in Zaria

ED Jatau, OS Olonitola



A total of 125 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains were isolated from patients attending private clinics in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Out of the 125 gonococcal isolates, 90 (72%) were resistant to penicillin G, 85 (68%) to ampicillin, 70 (56%) to tetracycline, 55 (44%) to erythromycin and 26 (22%) isolates were resistant to gentamicin. All the 125 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and ofloxacin. Out of the 90 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates resistant to penicillin, 65 (72.2%) were positive for β-lactamase production (PPNG). The remaining 25 (27.7%) penicillin resistant strains were β-lactamase negative. The findings of this study have shown high prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae amongst attendees of private clinics in Zaria.

African Journal of Clinical Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (2) 2007: pp. 101-106

Knowledge, attitude and practice of the trainee seafarers to HIV/AIDS and STIs at Apapa Seaport, Lagos

AM Efunsile, OO Oduyebo, WA Oyibo, FT Ogunsola, FA Fatungase, OA Osinupebi



The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Nigeria is being fuelled by ignorance and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Little is known about HIV-risk related sexual behavior of the Nigerian sailors. This study describes the baseline knowledge, attitude and practice of the trainee sailors to HIV.
Ninety four (83.2%) of the 113 trainee interviewed consented to participate in voluntary counseling and confidential testing (VCT) programme. Each trainee completed an anonymous self- administered questionnaire and was tested for syphilis, trichomoniasis and HIV.
Seventy one (75.5%) of the respondents were between ages 21-25 years. Twenty three (25%) did not believe that having sex with commercial sex workers puts them at high risk of HIV while eighteen (19.1%) did not believe that condoms were protective. Only ten (10.6%) practiced abstinence while three were homosexual. Despite all these, sixty three (67%) believed that they were at little or no risk of HIV, prevalence of which was found to be 5.3% among them. Seventy one (75.5%), fifteen (16%), twenty (21%) and (20.2% of respondents believed that genital ulcers, gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV respectively were not sexually transmitted. Trichomoniasis and syphilis were found in two (2.1%) and one (1.1%) respondents respectively. Female sex (P=0.002) and trichomoniasis (P=0.017) were found to significantly influence HIV infection.

There was a high level of ignorance about HIV and STIs among respondents. This was further highlighted by the high rate of high-risk behaviors. Therefore, sustained educational programs and promotion of condoms are recommended to address this problem.

African Journal of Clinical Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (2) 2007: pp. 94-100

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Effects of health education intervention on knowledge, attitude and practice of youths concerning HIV/AIDS in rural Nigerian community

IC Ajewole, GK Osagbemi



Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been a major public Health issue affecting millions of individuals around the World. No continent is spared.
HIV/AIDS is the most deadly of all the sexually transmitted infections. HIV/AIDS epidemic could has incalculable implications for Agriculture, Business and Socio-Economic development of a country.
This intervention study was carried out between June and October 2006 with the aim of assessing the impact of health education on the Knowledge Attitude and Practice of youths concerning HIV/AIDS. Preliminary KAP was assessed among study and control groups with the aid of a structured questionnaire designed by the researchers. This was followed by the intervention stage with health education given to the youths in the study group and subsequent evaluation of the impact using the same instrument used at the preliminary stage. The study took place in Ikerre Ekiti, a rural community in Ekiti state, Nigeria.
The results showed increase in the level of knowledge among the intervention group on STI & HIV/AIDS from 70.7% to 100%. The attitude and practice of the study group were also statistically different from the control group after intervention.
It was concluded that infection rate can be reduced by public health initiatives such as health education. To reduce the rate of spread of HIV infection, it is recommended that HIV/AIDS education be vigorously pursued amongst adolescents.

African Journal of Clinical Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (2) 2007: pp.89-93

Evaluation of measles vaccine cold chain in Lagos State, Nigeria

A O Oyefolu, A C Nwaeke, R A Audu, K O Akinyemi, O B Salu, C P Muller, S A Omilabu



The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and maintained. This was also reflected in the potency of the vaccines. However, many vaccines at L1 were within weeks from expiration. Considerable problems with refrigeration and delayed forwarding became apparent at level L3 causing loss in potency both at L3 and L4: although, all L4 stores check-listed met all the EPI/NPI accreditation criteria, ¾ of the vaccines were sub-potent and this situation did not improve over the three year study period (1996-98). Time to expiration did not seem to be the main cause of loss of potency but rather poor and delayed handling. It is recommended that vaccines are moved more rapidly through the system and used well before expiration. Because of frequent power failures despite standby generators, we further recommend to include in the WHO criteria, book-keeping of periods of power failures, running time of generators and a complete recording of fuel consumption. Attitudes among vaccinating staff and handling of vaccines should also be improved by continued training.

Keywords: Measles vaccine; cold stores; potency

African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 1-7