Invasive behaviour and depolarization effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rat cerebellar granule neurons

S Mezghani-Abdelmoula, A Khemiri, O Lesouhaitier, S Chevalier, L Cazin

 

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that Pseudomonas fluorescens exerts cytotoxic effects on neurons and glial cells. In the present work, we investigated the time course effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37 and of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. The kinetics of binding of P. fluorescens to cerebellar granule neurons is identical to that of cortical neurons but the binding index is lower, suggesting the presence of a reduced number of binding sites. As demonstrated by measurement of the concentration of nitrites in the culture medium, P. fluorescens induces a rapid stimulation (3 h) of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity of the cells. In contrast, LPS extracted from P. fluorescens requires a long lag phase (24 h) before observation of an activation of NOS. Measurement of the resting membrane potential of granule neurons showed that within 3 h of incubation, there was no difference of effect between the action of P. fluorescens and that of its LPS endotoxin. Two complementary approaches allowed us to demonstrate that P. fluorescens MF37 presents a rapid invasive behaviour, suggesting a mobilisation of calcium in its early steps of action. The present study reveals that P. fluorescens induces the sequential activation of a constitutive calcium dependent NOS and that of an inducible NOS activated by LPS. Ours results also suggest that P. fluorescens cytotoxicity and invasion are not mutually exclusive events.

Key Words: Cytotoxicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Patch-clamp, Invasion, Pseudomonas fluorescens

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 1-13

Quinolones resistance and R-plasmids of some gram negative enteric bacilli

OA Daini, OD Ogbolu, A Ogunledun

 

Abstract

Out of the two hundred and sixty bacteria isolates from clinical specimens obtained from different body sites at the University College Hospital Ibadan, 166 belonged to the family of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae. The isolated gram-negative enteric bacilli consist of Escherichia coli (22), Klebsiella species (65), Proteus species (20), Salmonella typhi (2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39) and Pseudomonas species (18). Among the antimicrobial agents tested, high resistance was found with ofloxacin 44.0%, followed by pefloxacin 30.1% and ciprofloxacin 21.7%. Ciprofloxacin has the lowest MIC of 2 – 32 μg/ml while ofloxacin has the highest 64 μg/ml. Of the 166 strains, 44 were resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. All the strains that were resistant to any antimicrobial agents were also resistant to ofloxacin. A total of 27 plasmids ranging in molecular sizes from 6.6.kb to 17.4kb were extracted from the resistant strains and grouped into 5 plasmid profiles. Transformation experiment revealed that 59.2% of the resistant strains carried a common R-plasmid of size 10.7kb. Plasmid-mediated resistance to ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin was found. Klebsiella species harboured the highest number of R-plasmids with 8, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 4.

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 14-20

Pattern of resistance to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents in staphylococcal isolates in a university teaching hospital

BO Olayinka, AT Olayinka, JA Onaolapo, PF Olurinola

 

Abstract

Multidrug resistance has been reported in clinical isolates of both coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus that are most often resistant to oxacillin/methicillin. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide is the drug of choice for infections caused by such multidrug resistant strains. This study determined the pattern of resistance to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents in staphylococcal isolates from a University Teaching Hospital. Staphylococcal isolates from clinical specimens submitted to the diagnostic medical microbiology laboratory of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria (over a three-month period) were characterized using standard microbiological procedures and their susceptibility to vancomycin and other commonly used antimicrobial agents determined by Kirby-Bauer-NCCLS modified disc diffusion technique. A total of 56 of the 97 (57.7%) staphylococcal isolates characterized were resistant to vancomycin 30μg, showing a zone of inhibition less than 15mm. Most of these isolates were from urine (27.3%), wound (21.8%) and pleural aspirate (12.8%). The 56 staphylococcal isolates were made up of 75% (41/56) Staphylococcus aureus and 25% (14/56) coagulase-negative staphylococci. Majority of the isolates, 60.7% (34/56) produced β-lactamase enzyme. Resistance pattern to other antimicrobial agents was benzyl penicillin G (92.9%); tetracycline (69.6%); cefuroxime (60%); chloramphenicol (54.5%); oxacillin (49.1%); erythromycin (35.7%); gentamicin (25%) and ciprofloxacin (16.1%). Analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) showed that majority (91.1%) were resistant to 3 to 7 of the other antimicrobial agents tested. No isolate was resistant to all the tested antimicrobial agents. A very high proportion of the staphylococcal isolates were resistant to vancomycin, a glycopeptide that is not commonly used in this environment. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the only agents that will be effective in treating infections by these isolates. The high proportion of isolates with MARI of 0.3 and above, suggest that the isolates originated from an environment where antibiotics are often used. There is need for constant, on-going antimicrobial resistance surveillance in important and commonly isolated clinically significant pathogens to form the basis for developing and implementing measures that will reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance.

Key Words: vancomycin, methicillin resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, antimicrobial agents

Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 21-27