Antimicrobial Stewardship Implementation in Nigerian Hospitals: Gaps and Challenges

*1Iregbu, K. C., 1Nwajiobi-Princewill, P. I., 1Medugu, N., 2Umeokonkwo, C. D., 3Uwaezuoke, N. S., 4Peter, Y. J., 5Nwafia, I. N., 6Eliukwu, C., 7Shettima, S. A., 8Suleiman, M. R., 9Awopeju, T. A., 10Udoh, U., 11Adedosu, N., 12Mohammed, A., 13Oshun, P., 14Ekuma, A., 15Manga, M. M., 16Osaigbovo, I. I., 17Ejembi, C. J., 18Akujobi, C. N., 19Samuel, S. O., 20Taiwo, S. S., and 13Oduyebo, O. O.

1National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria;

2Alex Ekwueme Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki;

3Federal Medical Centre, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria;

4University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada;

5University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu;

6Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria;

7Federal Medical Centre, Yola;

8Federal Medical Centre, Katsina;

9University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt;

10University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar;

11Federal Medical Centre, Owo;

12Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto;

13Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos;

14University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo;

15Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe;

16University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City;

17Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria;

18Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi;

19Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua;

20Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major clinical challenge globally. It is mainly a consequence of inappropriate prescribing and use of antibiotics. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) ensures that antibiotics are prescribed and used appropriately. This study assessed AMS practice in selected Nigerian hospitals. Continue reading “Antimicrobial Stewardship Implementation in Nigerian Hospitals: Gaps and Challenges”

Long term outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians and those co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses

*1Okwuraiwe, A. P., 1Audu, R. A., 1Ige, F. A., 1Salu, O. B., 1Onwuamah, C. K., & 2Musa, A. Z.

1Centre for Human Virology and Genomics, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria 2Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]; [email protected]; +2347039303050

Abstract:
Background: HIV co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common, largely due to shared routes of transmission, but paucity of data exists for long term treatment outcomes of HIV infected patients, and those co-infected with HBV and HCV despite the high burden in Nigeria. The aim of study was to describe the long-term treatment outcomes in HIV infected Nigerians and to assess the effect of HBV and HCV co-infections on long-term response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Continue reading “Long term outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Nigerians and those co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses”

Comparative evaluation of hydrophilic bases for improved delivery of Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid in antimicrobial ointment

*Oyedele, A. O., and Akinkunmi, E. O.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: Benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) combined are used as choice topical treatment for fungal and bacterial infections but their delivery is affected by ointment vehicle, among other factors. With aim to achieve improved release and antimicrobial activity in ointment formulation of these medicaments through selection of more efficient vehicle(s), this study comparatively evaluated prospective alternatives to the compendium-specified base for delivery potential and relevant physical properties. Continue reading “Comparative evaluation of hydrophilic bases for improved delivery of Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid in antimicrobial ointment”

Hygiene quality of traditional and industrial table olives from markets in Rabat-Salé and Temara cities in Morocco

*1Mennane, Z., 2Houlali, I., 3Charof, R., 1Abrini, J., and 1Elmtili, N.

1Food and Health Team, Laboratory of Biology and Health, Faculty of Science, Abdelmalek Essaidi University, P. O. Box 2121, Tetouan, Morocco

2Faculty of Science and Technology, Beni Mellal, Environment Laboratory, Morocco

3Laboratory of Medical Bacteriology, National Institute of Hygiene, Rabat, Morocco

Correspondence to: [email protected]; 212634564754

Abstract:

Background: Table olives are one of the most important vegetable canning products in Morocco, which is considered one of the world’s largest producing countries. Currently, many outlets prepare table olives by different methods that do not comply with standard hygiene practices. Hence, this research was conducted to assess the quality standard of these olives by evaluating their physico-chemical and microbiological properties. Continue reading “Hygiene quality of traditional and industrial table olives from markets in Rabat-Salé and Temara cities in Morocco”

Evaluation of a cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay test for rapid detection of cryptococcal infection in HIV-negative patients in Ibadan, Nigeria

*1,2,4Fayemiwo, S. A., 1,2Makanjuola, O. B., 1Nwaokenye, J., and 3Owolabi, M. O.

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK

*Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract:
Background: A number of studies have been conducted in Nigeria on the prevalence of cryptococcal infections mostly on HIV-infected patients using culture, India ink and/or latex agglutination tests. These tests are either laborious, time-consuming and expensive or have low sensitivity, thus limiting their use. Cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assays (LFA) were introduced in the last decade as rapid user-friendly tests for diagnosis. In this study, we sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of an LFA kit for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in the serum of HIV-negative patients with or without cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Continue reading “Evaluation of a cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay test for rapid detection of cryptococcal infection in HIV-negative patients in Ibadan, Nigeria”

Positivity yield of HIV index testing services from selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria

Emeh, A., *Usman, S. O., Adebanjo, A. M., Ogboghodo, E., Akinbinu, B., Suraju, A., Udechukwu, C., Ale, J., Ariyo, A., Owolagba, F. E., Jolayemi, T., and Okonkwo, P.

APIN Public Health Initiatives, Abuja, Nigeria *Correspondence to: [email protected]

Abstract: Background: Index testing is a voluntary process whereby HIV seropositive clients are counselled and, after obtaining consent, their sexual and needle sharing partners are offered HIV testing services. Index testing has been associated with high HIV positivity yield. The aim of this study is to determine the positivity yield and identify factors influencing the yield from index testing strategy in selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. Continue reading “Positivity yield of HIV index testing services from selected healthcare facilities in Ondo State, southwest Nigeria”

Profile of bacterial pathogens contaminating hands of healthcare workers during daily routine care of patients at a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria

1Ige, O. T., 2Jimoh, O., 3Ige, S. O., 4Ijei, I. P., 5Zubairu, H., and 2Olayinka, A. T.

1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Kaduna, Nigeria

3Department of Paediatrics, Yusuf Dantsofo Specialist Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria

4Department of Hematology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

5Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria Correspondence to: [email protected]; Mobile: 08133831264

Abstract:

Background: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) have been recognized as a critical challenge affecting the quality of healthcare services provided. A significant proportion of these infections result from cross-contamination of microorganisms which are often acquired and spread by direct contact with patients or contaminated adjacent environmental surfaces through the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs). The objectives of this study are to profile bacterial pathogens commonly found on the hands of health care workers while routinely attending to patients in the healthcare facility and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Continue reading “Profile of bacterial pathogens contaminating hands of healthcare workers during daily routine care of patients at a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria”