Acute Respiratory Infections in the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria

SK Ernest, A-WBR Johnson, OA Mokuolu, OT Adedoyin, JK Afolabi, CO Nwabueze, MA Ernest, CI Aderinola, AJ Alarape



Background: ARI continues to be a leeding cause of death among children globally beyond the year 2000. Close 12 million children under the age of 5years die each year in the developing countries, mainly from preventable causes and approximately 2.28 million (19%) were due to acute respiratory infections (ARI). It therefore became necessary to assess the present status of the disease in Nigeria to mastermind workable plans for reducing the mortality and morbidity burden.
Methods: A designed pro-forma was used to collect and collate information from mothers or direct care givers of children at both hospital and community levels relating to family background, home setting, anthropometry, clinical presentation of ARI, previous medications, investigations, complications and outcomes of illness.
Results: A total of 163 children were recruited for the study. One hundred and six had moderate and severe form of ARI while 57 had mild form. The in-patients accounted for 15.2% of all the admission within the study period.All children were under 12 years of age with male preponderance. Fast breathing, Tarchypnoea, Cough and Fever were the leading ways of presentations. The immunization coverage of study population by various antigens in the EPI were poor. Majority of the hospital children had pre-consultation antibiotics while none of the children from the rural community had pre-recruitment antibiotics. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were the leading organisms isolated with good sensitivity to Quinolones, Gentamycin and Cephalosporins. Heart failure was the leading complications. Mortality was 12.3% among the hospitalized patient and none among the community children.
Conclusion: It was concluded that ARI is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children with opportunity for burden reduction.

Keywords: Acute Respiratory Infection, present outlook, burden

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Acute Respiratory Infections in the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria